Can vouchers deliver? An evaluation of subsidies for maternal health care in Cambodia
Ellen Van de Poel, Gabriela Flores, Por Ir, Owen O’Donnell & Eddy Van Doorslaer
Volume 92, Number 5, May 2014, 331-339
Table 3. Baseline covariate values and the difference between intervention and control districts in the trend between 2001 and 2009, Cambodia
|Covariate||Mean valuea of covariate in 2005
||Pc (for association between change in covariate over time and introduction of voucher scheme)|
|Intervention districtsb (n = 22)||Control districts (n = 55)|
|Child is male||0.482||0.503||0.728|
|Mother's age at childbirth ≤ 20 years||0.092||0.101||0.646|
|Mother's age at childbirth 21–34 years||0.730||0.731||0.889|
|Short interval from previous childbirth||0.134||0.120||0.177|
|Birth order > 4||0.214||0.211||0.302|
|Mother's age at first marriage, years||19||19||0.665|
|Mother has used modern contraception||0.244||0.279||0.253|
|Mother completed primary education||0.599||0.529||0.909|
|Mother completed secondary education||0.164||0.165||0.722|
|In poorest quintile by wealth indexd||0.294||0.340||0.645|
|In second poorest quintile by wealth indexd||0.229||0.224||0.326|
|In third poorest quintile by wealth indexd||0.184||0.148||0.842|
|In second richest quintile by wealth indexd||0.156||0.144||0.398|
|Age of household head, years||39||40||0.708|
|Male household head||0.837||0.853||0.766|
|Has health equity fund||0.091||0.517||0.260|
|Has government fee waiver scheme||0||0||0.197|
|Has any performance-based financing||0.108||0.406||0.556|
|No. of observations||651||1950||NA|
NA, not applicable.
a All covariates were dummy variables set to 1 if the respective description was satisfied and 0 otherwise, except for the mother's age at first marriage and the age of the household head.
b Intervention districts were those that had implemented a voucher scheme by 2010. No district had a voucher scheme in place in 2005.
c P-value for the null hypothesis that the change in the mean of each covariate between 2001 and 2009 was not associated with the introduction of a voucher scheme were derived using t tests. This involved regressing each covariate on a set of birth period and district fixed effects, as well as on an indicator for the operation of a voucher scheme within the period and district, and testing whether the coefficient for the voucher scheme indicator was zero.
d The wealth index was devised by principal component analysis of a set of household assets and dwelling characteristics.
Note: Data were obtained from the 2005 and 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Surveys.