Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Guideline for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk
This publication provides guidance on reducing disability and premature deaths from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease in people at high risk, who have not yet experienced a cardiovascular event. People with established cardiovascular disease are at very high risk of recurrent events and are not the subject of these guidelines. They have been addressed in previous WHO guidelines. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts that accompany these guidelines allow treatment to be targeted according to simple predictions of absolute cardiovascular risk.
Recommendations are made for management of major cardiovascular risk factors through changes in lifestyle and prophylactic drug therapies. The guidelines provide a framework for the development of national guidance on prevention of cardiovascular disease that takes into account the particular political, economic, social and medical circumstances.
Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Pocket guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk
These pocket guidelines provide evidence-based guidance on how to reduce the incidence of first and recurrent clinical events due to coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and peripheral vascular disease in two categories of people. They include; 1. People with risk factors who have not yet developed clinically manifest cardiovascular disease (primary prevention). 2. People with established CHD, CeVD or peripheral vascular disease (secondary prevention).
The accompanying World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts enable the estimation of total cardiovascular risk of people in the first category. The evidence-based recommendations given in Part 1 of these guidelines, provide guidance on which specific preventive actions to initiate, and with what degree of intensity. People in the second category have high cardiovascular risk and need intensive lifestyle interventions and appropriate drug therapy as elaborated in Part II of these guidelines. Risk stratification using risk charts is not required for making treatment decisions in them.
WHO/ISH Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Charts
WHO/ISH risk prediction charts The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts indicate 10-year risk of a fatal or nonfatal major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction or stroke), according to age, sex, blood pressure, smoking status, total blood cholesterol and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus for 14 WHO epidemiological sub-regions. There are two sets of charts. One set (14 charts) can be used in settings where blood cholesterol can be measured. The other set (14 charts) is for settings in which blood cholesterol cannot be measured. Both sets are available in colour and shades of black on a compact disc. Each chart can only be used in countries of the specific WHO epidemiological sub-region. The charts provide approximate estimates of CVD risk in people who do not have established coronary heart disease, stroke or other atherosclerotic disease. They are useful as tools to help identify those at high cardiovascular risk, and to motivate patients, particularly to change behaviour and, when appropriate, to take antihypertensive, lipid-lowering drugs and aspirin.
WHO Research into Global Hazards of Travel (WRIGHT) Project
The objectives of the WRIGHT (WHO Research Into Global Hazards of Travel) project were to confirm that the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE ) is increased by air travel and to determine the magnitude of risk, the effect of other factors on the risk and to study the effect of preventive measures on risk.
To address these objectives, several studies were performed during Phase I of the WRIGHT project. Additional proposed studies related to the effect of preventive interventions were deferred to Phase II. The findings of the epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of VTE approximately doubles after a long–haul flight (>4 hours) and also with other forms of travel where travellers are exposed to prolonged seated immobility. The risk increases with the duration of the travel and with multiple flights within a short period.
Prevention of Recurrent Heart Attacks and Strokes in Low and Middle Income Populations
This publication summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD). A commentary on the evidence for cardiovascular prevention in peripheral vascular disease and diabetes is also included. Each review of evidence is followed by a short summary of clinical recommendations for secondary prevention. A review of other considerations influencing policy-makers in the implementation of secondary prevention strategies, including health economics, follows. Finally, the book identifies areas in which research is needed to improve secondary prevention of CVD in low- and middle-income populations.
Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes: Don't be a victim, protect yourself
Cardiovascular diseases are killing more and more people around the world, striking rich and poor alike. Those who survive a heart attack or stroke often need to take long-term medical treatment. If you have ever had a heart attack or stroke, or had to care for someone who has, you will know that these diseases can seriously affect the life of both the patient and his or her family. The effects can even reach beyond the family to the community. Yet so many heart attacks and strokes could be prevented. That is why you should read this booklet. It explains why heart attacks and strokes happen and how you can avoid them. It tells you what you should do to avoid becoming a victim. This publication is available for free download, hard copies can be ordered from WHO Press.
Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease : Report of a WHO Expert Consultation
Rheumatic heart disease poses a major challenge to public health and is the most prevalent heart disease in children. A WHO Study group reviewed the current scientific knowledge of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, as well as the medical and public health related practices, and revised the Jones diagnostic criteria for rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The present report provides practical recommendations for an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. It also provides practical guidance for implementing cost-effective programmes for controlling these diseases. The report will be of interest to clinicians, policy-makers and public health professionals.