Cholera

Joint WHO/UNICEF statement for typhoid vaccine use in tsunami-affected areas


Issues to be considered for vaccine use

Population at risk
  • Displaced population living in settlements/camps
  • With limited access to safe water and proper sanitation
  • Location endemic for typhoid fever
  • With limited health infrastructure
  • Community leaders ensuring involvement of community
  • Access to the population at risk possible (individuals >2 years of age)
Surveillance
  • Data on occurrence of typhoid fever
Vaccine
  • Choice of vaccine will depend on the occurrence of typhoid fever
  • Timing of vaccination either pre-emptive (environmental management in the population not satisfactory and outbreak expected in the near future) or reactive (at the early stages of an outbreak to limit its spread)
  • Sufficient doses available for total population at risk in given area
  • Case-by-case decision, as none of the vaccines are prequalified by WHO
Logistics
  • Cold chain facility and storage capacity available
Human resources
  • Health care staff (e.g. Ministry of Health, nongovernmental organization, …)
  • Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)/Polio vaccination teams
  • Community
Prevention
  • Capacity to implement health education during campaign
  • Environmental management activities should continue
Political commitment
  • Agreement to import/licence vaccine from country considered
  • Support and commitment from national/regional and local levels
  • Support and commitment from community leaders and other groups
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