1994 was a watershed year in the history of Rwanda. A war and genocide left much of the country destroyed and more than 1 000 000 dead. In addition, a mass exodus from the country caused a shortage of human resources in the civil service. The health sector was not spared.

Following the cessation of hostilities, the Government of Rwanda has progressively re-established law and order, security and the civil service. A democratic government has been elected, and has taken steps to ensure the stability of the country. The economy has grown because of solid economic reforms and policies. The country is administratively divided into five provinces (East, West, South, North and Kigali City Town) and 30 districts.


Rwanda is a country of only 28 338 sq km but with a population of nine million. This population density of over 300 people/sq km is the highest in Africa. The fertility rate is high and the population has been increasing at an annual rate of about 2.8%. The population is therefore expected to reach 12 million by the year 2012. This is straining development, equitable distribution of resources, and agriculture, which is the mainstay of the economy of the country. Population control is therefore one of the government’s top priorities.

60% of the population of the country live in rural areas, where there is high level of poverty. However, there is also high level of education of over 68%. It is expected that if the country continues with its reforms and market economy approach the future for development looks good.