Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 - update 97
Weekly virological surveillance update
23 April 2010 - Overall influenza activity has remained at low levels in most parts of the world. In most countries where human infection of influenza virus was reported, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) continues to be the predominating influenza A viruses subtyped (99% in Canada, Chile and the United States and 79.9% globally).
Seasonal A(H1N1) viruses were detected very sporadically in Russian Federation and China. Sporadic influenza A(H3N2) activity was reported from some countries including China, Japan and Russian Federation. Influenza B was reported as the predominating influenza virus accounting for 82.1% of all influenza detections in Russian Federation, 89.5% in China, 92.9 % in Sweden, 97.8% in Republic of Korea, and 100% in Iran, Latvia and Mongolia. Increased sporadic influenza B activity has also been observed in some other countries.
Based on FluNet reporting for the week from 4 April to 10 April 2010, the total number of specimens reportedly positive for influenza viruses by National Influenza Centres (NIC) from 27 countries was 1,216. Of these, 174/1,216 (14.3%) were typed as influenza A and 1,042 (85.7%) as influenza B.
From the start of the pandemic in 19 April 2009 to 10 April 2010, based on FluNet reporting by 85 countries, the total number of specimens reported positive for influenza by NIC laboratories was 616,297 *. Of these, 476,201 (77.3%) were pandemic A(H1N1), 8,739 (1.4%) were seasonal A(H1N1), 31,380 (5.1%) were A(H3N2), 73,451 (11.9%) were A (not subtyped) and 26,431 (4.3%) were influenza B.
Since the beginning of the pandemic on 19 April 2009 to 17th April 2010, cumulatively 155 countries shared a total of 25,206 (19,352 clinical and 5,854 isolates) with WHO CCs for further characterization. The majority of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses analyzed to date are antigenically and genetically closely related to the recommended vaccine virus A/California/7/2009.
Antiviral susceptibility surveillance has been conducted by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) including WHO CCs. So far, pandemic A(H1N1) specimens and isolates from at least 92 countries have been tested. The data showed that oseltamivir resistant pandemic A(H1N1) viruses are sporadically detected with rare onward transmission. So far, 285 cases of oseltamivir resistance have been reported by GISN and other partners. All of these viruses showed the H275Y substitution and all remain sensitive to zanamivir. (See below to obtain more information on oseltamivir resistant viruses).
WHO, through the GISN, continues monitoring the evolution and global circulation of influenza viruses, including pandemic, seasonal and other influenza viruses infecting, or with the potential to infect humans.
*Some NICs report data to FluNet retrospectively and updates of previous data with new results are frequent.