Leakage Management and Control - A Best Practice Training Manual, © 2001, WHO.

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction to the training manual

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives of the training manual
1.3 Description of the training manual

2. Introduction to leakage

2.1 Course introduction
2.2 Defining leakage
2.3 Factors influencing leakage
2.4 Causes and effects of leakage
2.5 Developing a leakage strategy

3. Leakage assessment

3.1 Understanding water loss and leakage
3.2 Defining total water loss
3.3 International comparisons
3.4 Physical (real) and non-physical (apparent) losses

4. Quantifying total water loss

4.1 Conducting a water audit

5. Techniques for quantifying leakage

5.1 Leakage measurement in the distribution network
5.2 Using temporary meters
5.3 Leakage measurement and detection in intermittent-supply networks

6. Developing a leakage management strategy

6.1 The alternative strategies
6.2 Economics and planning
6.3 The Bursts and Background Estimates (BABE) concept
6.4 Setting leakage targets

7. Leakage monitoring and control

7.1 Leakage monitoring in zones or sectors (the DMA concept)
7.2 DMA design
7.3 DMA management
7.4 DMA maintenance
7.5 DMA monitoring
7.6 Responding to DMA data
7.7 Dealing with problem DMAs

8. Pressure management

8.1 Design of pressure management areas (PMAs)
8.2 Choice of PRV and control system

9. Leak detection and location

9.1 Leak detection techniques
9.2 Leak location techniques
9.3 Equipment for leak detection and location

Annex 1. Example of a Workshop Programme to Demonstrate Strategy Development

Annex 2. Workshop Case Study

Annex 3. Case Studies: Implementation of the Strategy

Annex 4. Glossary of Terms

Annex 5. Equipment Manufacturers

Annex 6. BABE and Associated Software