Community-based surveillance and case containment activities
The most powerful tools to monitor the eradication of dracunculiasis are village-based surveillance systems and case containment activities.
Ideally, cases are identified before the worm emerges, or at latest 24 hours after it appears. Containment measures are initiated when a case has been detected; the wound is cleaned and bandaged regularly until the worm has been completely expelled, and the patient is advised to avoid contact with water.
A volunteer from among the community is identified, mostly in consultation with the village chief. The volunteer is trained in basic dracunculiasis surveillance and management. A supervisor usually from the district level visits the volunteer, the frequency of such visits range from daily, if active case is detected, to weekly during the transmission season.
Community members are educated regarding prevention and containment; they are encouraged to filter drinking-water regularly. Case-containment, which has proven highly effective, has been implemented in all endemic villages. In 2010, the overall case-containment rate was 74%.
Photo captions: from top to bottom:
- A village volunteer providing health education and looking for guinea worm cases
- information on cases are recorded by volunteer in a village-based register
- A guinea-worm is pulled from the leg of a Sudanese man