Surveillance and control
Surveillance begins with village-based health workers, who are usually volunteers trained to detect and contain cases in countries where dracunculiasis is endemic.
In countries where transmission of Dracunculus medinensis has been interrupted, surveillance should be maintained for a minimum of 3 consecutive years, to ensure that no cases have been missed and there is zero reoccurrence of the disease. The International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication has recommended that cash rewards be introduced during the final stages of the campaign.
Cyclops, or water fleas, are the only intermediate host of the third-stage larvae of Dracunculus medinensis, the guinea worm. They range in size from 0.5 to 2 mm and commonly occur in surface water sources, mainly stagnant ponds.
The International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication recommends aggressive, innovative use of temephos to kill Cyclops and minimize the risk of D. medinensis transmission.