Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance
In May 2015, the Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly adopted the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. One of the five strategic objectives of the action plan is to strengthen the evidence base through enhanced global surveillance and research.
AMR surveillance is the cornerstone for assessing the burden of AMR and for providing the necessary information for action in support of local, national and global strategies. The Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) is being launched to support a standardized approach to the collection, analysis and sharing of data on AMR at a global level, in order to inform decision-making, drive local, national and regional action, and provide the evidence base for action and advocacy.
GLASS aims to combine clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on pathogens that pose the greatest threats to health globally. The GLASS manual details the proposed approach for the early implementation of the surveillance system, that will focus on antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and outlines the flexible and incremental development of the system over time that will incorporate lessons learned from the early implementation phase.
Participation in GLASS
Countries can benefit from participation in GLASS through enhanced capacity building, access to training and implementation tools, and support in collecting AMR data at local and national levels. Country participation in GLASS must be with the agreement of the national government and is subject to the fulfillment of a number of criteria.
Further information on criteria for enrolment in GLASS will be available in due course.
Please note that implementation of GLASS in countries should be coordinated within the national action plan for AMR and should build upon already existing surveillance structures and networks.
Regional antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks
- Central Asian and Eastern European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (CAESAR)
- Latin American Surveillance Network of Antimicrobial Resistance (Red Latinoamericana de Vigilancia de la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, ReLAVRA)
- European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARS-Net)
Software for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance
Surveillance of antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance surveillance is enhanced when linked to monitoring of antimicrobial use practices. The collaborative efforts of surveillance networks such as the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Network have demonstrated that the integrated monitoring of resistance and use can prove the crucial factor driving political commitment to successful resistance containment campaigns and actions.
Surveillance supporting documents and tools
- Global action plan to control the spread and impact of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System
Integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance
- Methods for surveillance of antimalarial drug efficacy
- Guidelines for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis - 5th edition
Microbiological laboratory standards and tools
- Manual for the laboratory identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens of public health importance in the developing world
- Strategies and laboratory methods for strengthening surveillance of sexually transmitted infections
- Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus
- Laboratory assessment tool
- Laboratory quality management system: handbook
- Laboratory Quality Stepwise Implementation tool
- European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing – EUCAST
Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-fifth informational supplement. Wayne, Pennsylvania: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2015 (M100-S25)
- Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance, 2014
- Worldwide country situation analysis: response to antimicrobial resistance, 2015
- Central Asian and Eastern European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance. Annual report 2014
Update on artemisinin and ACT resistance
Monitoring gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility
- Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System, 22-23 October 2015
- WHO advisory group on integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: 6th meeting report, 10-12 June 2015
- Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for local and global action, 2-3 December 2014
- 2nd Technical Consultation on Global Surveillance of Antibacterial Resistance (ABR) in Humans
Strategies for global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance