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Bench Aids for the Morphological Diagnosis of Anaemia
2001, 7 plastified plates
ISBN 92 4 154532 1
Swiss francs 40.
In developing countries: Swiss francs 28.
Order no. 1150488
The bench aids for the diagnosis of anaemia from blood film morphology are intended as a guide for both doctors and technical laboratory staff working in haematology and as a teaching aid for students and trainees. Following measurement of haemoglobin, examination of blood films is an essential part of haematological investigation. The bench aids consist of a series of photomicrographs of stained blood films with accompanying text, which provide guidance for diagnosing the cause of anaemia from the appearance of the films. They describe the features to be looked for and they demonstrate how diagnosis will often depend on comprehension of the whole picture as revealed in a blood film.
To highlight the importance of having well-made and well-stained films and of using a microscope with correctly adjusted optics and illumination, guidelines on these aspects are also included.
The bench aids have been produced in a weatherproof plastic-sealed format that is robust and easy to use at the bench alongside the microscope. They are recommended for use by all health workers engaged in the routine diagnosis of anaemia.
Preparation and Application Methods
T.C.F. Roy, G.S. Nicholson, and F.A. Ala
WHO Regional Publications, Eastern Mediterranean Series, No. 5
1993, 87 pages [E]
ISBN 92 9021 179 2
Sw.fr. 10.-/US $9.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 7.-
Order no. 1440005
A step-by-step guide to over 50 techniques, procedures, and tests used in the routine grouping and cross-matching of blood and in the routine screening and identification of antibodies in blood transfusion services. Developed specifically for use in workshops and other training courses in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the manual aims to encourage the quality standards needed to ensure blood safety and prevent severe transfusion reactions. Emphasis is placed on the use of manual techniques for the ABO blood grouping of patients and donor samples and for compatibility testing. Apart from detailed instructions for specific procedures and tests, the manual includes advice on the reading and interpretation of tests, the reporting of results, common sources of error, and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different tests. The manual also describes simple procedures for the preparation of basic reagents.
Blood Transfusion: A Basic Text
edited by A.F.H. Britten, F.A. Ala, and M.
WHO Regional Publications, Eastern Mediterranean Series, No. 7
1994, xi + 171 pages [E]
ISBN 92 9021 181 4
Sw.fr. 15.-/US $13.50; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 10.50
Order no. 1440007
A practical, common-sense guide to the efficient organization and management of blood transfusion services. Developed during a series of workshops held in the Eastern Mediterranean region, the manual aims to help new services profit from global experience while encouraging established services to upgrade their practices and policies in line with rapid advances in blood banking technology. Information responds to the distinct needs and conditions seen in Eastern Mediterranean countries. Adopting a problem-oriented approach, the manual concentrates on three areas responsible for most weaknesses and most errors in the region's blood transfusion services: organization and management, blood donor motivation and blood collection, and quality assurance. Case studies and examples of country experiences are used throughout the text to facilitate understanding of day-to-day procedures as well as fundamental principles.
The core of the manual consists of three detailed chapters covering the organization and management of blood transfusion services, the recruitment of donors and blood collection, and the complete range of management and operational systems needed for quality assurance.
Blood Transfusion and Blood Components
C.T. Smit Sibinga
WHO Regional Publications, Eastern Mediterranean Series, No. 12
1995, 54 pages [E]
ISBN 92 9021 190 3
Sw.fr. 10.-/US $9.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 7.-
Order no. 1440012
An authoritative guide, translated from the Dutch original, to the clinically justified and safe use of specific blood components to meet specific clinical needs. Noting that blood transfusion can be a dangerous therapy, the book aims to help clinicians make transfusion decisions on the basis of the most complete and up-to-date knowledge about blood components, their clinical indications, and associated risks.
The book has ten chapters presented in two groups. Chapters in the first group describe the state-of-the-art in blood grouping and blood banking, concentrating on information relevant to safe transfusion practice. Chapters in the second group spell out the do's and don'ts of safe transfusion practice. Guidelines and advice are intended to help clinicians avoid unjustified transfusions, know when transfusion is clearly indicated, and then select the correct transfusion material with the correct component from the correct donor. Other chapters cover the prevention of transfusion reactions and the prevention of transfusion-transmissible disease. The remaining chapters provide a model transfusion policy for the emergency management of acute massive blood loss, and outline procedures for the use of exchange transfusion to treat haemolytic disease of the newborn.
2001, 337 pages
The Clinical Use of Blood in Medicine, Obstetrics, Paediatrics, Surgery & Anaesthesia, Trauma & Burns
Blood transfusion is an essential part of modern health care. Used correctly, it can be a life-saving intervention. Inappropriate use can endanger life because of the potential risk of acute or delayed complications, including the transmission of infectious agents, such as HIV, hepatitis viruses, syphilis, malaria and Chagas disease. The decision to transfuse blood or blood products should therefore always be based on a careful assessment of clinical and laboratory indications that transfusion is necessary to save life or prevent significant morbidity.
The Clinical Use of Blood is an accessible learning tool that will assist prescribers of blood to make appropriate clinical decisions on transfusion and contribute to wider efforts to minimize the unnecessary use of blood and blood products. It has been prepared by an international team of clinical and blood transfusion specialists and has been extensively reviewed by relevant WHO departments and critical readers from a range of specialists from all regions of the world.
This module has been developed for prescribers of blood at all levels of the health system, particularly clinicians and senior paramedical staff at first referral level (district hospitals) in developing countries. It has been designed for use in undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, in-service training and continuing medical education programmes, but can also be used for independent study. Its interactive style, with learning objectives, activities and case studies, encourages users to focus on the use of transfusion in their own clinical environment and promotes the development of local guidelines on clinical blood usage. Key points, tables and algorithms are highlighted for easy reference and a comprehensive index is included.
Part 1: Principles, Products and Procedures introduces the principles of the appropriate use of blood and outlines the characteristics and indications for use of intravenous replacement fluids, whole blood, blood components and plasma derivatives. It also provides a detailed guide to clinical transfusion procedures and the recognition and management of transfusion reactions.
Part 2: Transfusion in Clinical Practice summarizes factors to consider in making clinical decisions on transfusion and provides comprehensive guidance on transfusion and alternatives to transfusion in the areas of general medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics & neonatology, surgery & anaesthesia, trauma & acute surgery, and burns.
Part 3: The Appropriate Use of Blood Putting It into Practice explores how individual clinicians and blood transfusion specialists can make a practical contribution to achieving the appropriate use of blood, both within their own hospitals and more widely.
A companion handbook (see below), contains a summary of key information from the module to provide a quick reference when an urgent decision on transfusion is required.
The Clinical Use of Blood Handbook 2001, 219 pages
The Clinical Use of Blood Handbook, provides a handy guide to the appropriate use of blood and blood products for prescribers of blood at all levels of the healthcare system. It is designed to provide a quick reference to transfusion, particularly when an urgent clinical decision is required. It summarizes key information from a more extensive module of learning material: The Clinical Use of Blood (see front page). Both the module and handbook have been prepared by an international team of clinical and blood transfusion specialists and reviewed by relevant WHO departments and critical readers from a range of specialties from all regions of the world.
The handbook introduces the principles of the appropriate use of blood and blood products and outlines the characteristics and indications for use of intravenous replacement fluids, whole blood, blood components and plasma derivatives. It provides a detailed guide to clinical transfusion procedures and the recognition and management of transfusion reactions. Comprehensive guidance is given on transfusion and alternatives to transfusion in the areas of general medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics & neonatology, surgery & anaesthesia, trauma & acute surgery, and burns. Key points, tables and algorithms are highlighted for easy reference and a comprehensive index is included.
Guidelines for Quality Assurance Programmes for Blood Transfusion Services
1993, iv + 50 pages [C*, E, F, S]
ISBN 92 4 154448 1
Sw.fr. 12.-/US $10.80; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 8.40
Order no. 1150392
A comprehensive guide to each component of a quality assurance programme for blood transfusion services, whether established in a small hospital blood bank or a large transfusion centre. Measures described are intended to ensure the maximum safety of all procedures for donors, recipients, and the staff themselves. Arguing that a system of quality assurance should be implemented in all transfusion services and blood banks, the book emphasizes the vital importance of strict quality control procedures at each stage of each procedure.
The first chapter explains the importance of meticulous records and documents. Chapter two outlines nine elements that must be included in all standard operating procedures and sets out requirements for their implementation. Subsequent chapters describe measures for quality assurance in donor selection and blood collection. A chapter focused on the responsibilities of laboratories sets out, in tabular form, specific requirements for the quality control of ABO grouping, Rh(D) blood group reagents, HBsAg testing, anti-HIV testing, and syphilis testing. The remaining chapters cover the testing and quality assurance of blood components, and describe the roles of transfusion committees and audits.
Guidelines for the Organization of a Blood Transfusion Service
edited by W.N. Gibbs and A.F.H. Britten
1992, x + 150 pages [E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 154445 7
Sw.fr. 25.-/US $22.50; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 17.50
Order no. 1150376
A comprehensive guide to the principles and procedures involved in establishing or reorganizing a national blood transfusion service in developing countries. Focused on organizational principles rather than technical details, the book responds to both the growing clinical need for safe and effective blood products and the many problems inherent in the organization of a transfusion service. Guidelines and advice draw upon several clear examples of successes and failures taken from international experiences in the difficult process of establishing a new transfusion service. Cost-saving options are presented together with clear indications of areas where expense is inevitable and no short-cuts are possible.
The book has nine chapters. The first introduces the main functions, responsibilities, and organizational options of a national transfusion service. Subsequent chapters outline the guiding principles for planning a donor recruitment programme and discuss the procedures to be followed during blood collection.
Of particular value is a chapter devoted to the screening of blood for hepatitis, AIDS, syphilis and yaws, malaria, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus, and other transmissible diseases. Other chapters outline the organizational procedures that should guide the production of laboratory reagents at the national or regional level, the selection of methods for blood-grouping and compatibility testing, and the acquisition of basic equipment and consumables, moving from refrigerators and centrifuges to pipettes and marking pens. The book concludes with guidelines for quality assurance and biosafety.
"...should meet all the requirements of those
trying to develop transfusion services in a wide range of situations..."
British Journal of Biomedical Sciences
Management of Blood Transfusion Services
edited by S.F. Hollán, W. Wagstaff, J. Leikola, and
1990, xii + 229 pages [C, E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 154406 6
Sw.fr. 41.-/US $36.90; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 28.70
Order no. 1150345
A complete guide to the organization and management of blood transfusion services, moving from advice on the formulation of a national blood policy to procedures for quality control, equipment checks, inventories, cost-efficiency calculations, and the computerized management of records. Addressed to senior managers and administrative staff, the book aims to acquaint its readers with all the factors _ from staff and training to equipment and its calibration _ that can influence the ability of a transfusion service to supply adequate, safe, and biologically potent blood and blood products. Throughout the book, checklists and questions are used to help decision-makers think through their needs, anticipate problems, and know what their decisions will mean in terms of long-range costs and requirements.
The book is intended to help developing countries establish or upgrade services based on the most up-to-date scientific and practical principles. Any manager familiar with the contents of this book will be in a good position to plan and organize a transfusion service that responds to real needs and serves the health care system with an ethical, adequate, and safe supply of blood and blood products.
"... admirable ... clear and well written ...
The book is primarily directed towards helping the establishment of a modern transfusion
service from more humble beginnings and I know of no other single source that would be as
Journal of Clinical Pathology
"... a readable and interesting book ...
provides valuable guidance on the practical organisation of a transfusion service, which
is not otherwise readily available in a single text..."
Health Services Management Research
Plasma Fractionation Programmes for Developing Countries
Technical Aspects and Infrastructural Requirements
by F. Ala, T. Burnouf and M. El Nagueh
WHO Regional Publications, Eastern Mediterranean Series, No. 22
1999, 155 pages [E]
ISBN 92 9021 262 4
Sw.fr. 8.–/US $7.00
In developing countries: Sw.fr. 5.60
Order no. 1440022
In this publication the importance of a competent transfusion infrastructure in the establishment of a plasma fractionation programme is emphasized. This monograph analyses and compares, in an objective manner, the various fractionation methodologies available and the issues which must be considered in initiating a sound national plasma fractionation programme: the establishment of an appropriate blood donor base; the appropriate collection and testing practices of blood and plasma; a well-conceived quality assurance programme; the rational and reasonable use of blood products; and the convenient manufacture of plasma derivatives.
Safe Blood and Blood Products
Distance Learning Materials. Revised edition
This set of five spiral-bound manuals offers a completely new method for rapidly improving the knowledge and technical skills of staff working in blood transfusion services in developing countries. The objective is to provide access to training for staff who have limited opportunities to attend conventional training courses. Technical training, guided by numerous activity-based tests, exercises and progress checks, takes place at the workplace in the context of the performance of routine daily work. Because of this unique approach, the manuals should enable blood transfusion services to update and upgrade staff in a practical and cost-effective way that makes the best use of limited training resources.
" ...an excellent source of virtually all the important
information. ..extremely well done. .."
-Transfusion International (from the 1st edition)
2002, 631 pages (5 manuals) [E]
ISBN 92 4 154546 1
Swiss francs 120.--/US $108.
In developing countries: Sw.fr. 84.
A.D. Kitchen and M.M. El-Nageh
Transfusion Microbiology Practice
The book opens with a discussion of factors that help explain why some infectious agents are transmitted by blood transfusion while many others are not. The transmission of viral agents one of the major problems facing transfusion medicine is covered in the next chapter, which reviews the basic virology and epidemiology of hepatatis B and C viruses, HIV, human T-cell leukaemia viruses, and human cytomegalovirus. A chapter on transmissible non-viral infectious agents outlines nonspecific and specific screening tests for the most important bacteria and protozoa, including plasmodium, trypanosoma cruzi, and leishmania. The possibility that Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease might be transmitted by blood is also briefly discussed.
Practical advice on screening tests is provided in the main part of the manual, which includes chapters on the strengths and weaknesses of diagnostic and confirmatory tests, the strategies underlying their selection and use, the appropriate management of test results, and the use of automated systems and equipment. The book concludes with chapters on quality assurance and on transfusion bacteriology and environmental monitoring of work areas.
WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization
Technical Report Series, No. 840
1994, v + 218 pages [C*, E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 120840 6
Sw.fr. 31.-/US $27.90; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 21.70
Order no. 1100840
Issues detailed requirements for the manufacturing and control of selected biologicals. New requirements are provided for Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine, and for live combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccines. Revised requirements for the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives are also presented, with particular attention given to the extreme care needed during manufacture to ensure that these products are free from infectious viruses, including HIV and hepatitis B virus. The book concludes with amendments to the requirements for three rabies vaccines.