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Application of the International Classification of Diseases to Dentistry and Stomatology
1995, v + 238 pages [C*, E, F*; S from PAHO]
ISBN 92 4 154467 8
Sw.fr. 50.-/US $45.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 35.-
Order no. 1153086
This third edition of the Application of the International Classification of Diseases to Dentistry and Stomatology (ICD-DA) provides a coherent system for coding and classifying data on oral and dental disorders, particularly when electronic or mechanical means of retrieval and analysis are used. Scope of the classification includes all diseases and conditions that occur in, have manifestations in, or are associated with the oral cavity and adjacent structures. ICD-DA is derived from the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and should be used in conjunction with this parent work.
For oral and dental disorders, most of the classifications provided by ICD-10 have been subdivided and expanded to include a fifth character. The purpose of this exclusive fifth character is to focus the attention of oral health personnel on the need for detailed diagnosis for each patient, to allow standardized recording of all diagnoses, and to facilitate comparison of data at an international level.
Like the parent work, ICD-DA has a detailed tabular section followed by a comprehensive alphabetic index. The classification can be used in a contracted form, consisting of a relatively small number of broad headings, or in an expanded form that allows detailed analysis in areas of special interest.
ICD-DA should prove valuable to a wide variety of users, from governments collecting basic data to individual researchers, practitioners, and lecturers who require a convenient method for indexing their records and teaching material.
Comparing Oral Health Care Systems
A Second International Collaborative Study
M. Chen, R.M. Andersen, D.E. Barmes, M.-H. Leclercq,
and C.S. Lyttle
1997, iv + 350 pages [E]
ISBN 92 4 156188 2
Sw.fr. 45.-/US $40.50; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 31.50
Order no. 1930114
Describes the design and findings of a large international collaborative study conducted to assess the status of oral health in different cultures and identify the system factors that influence specific components of oral health. Conducted by WHO in collaboration with the Center for Health Administration Studies at the University of Chicago, the study aimed to reach conclusions about the determinants of oral health that could be generalized to other settings and thus guide decisions about the best systems for promoting oral health.
The study was specifically designed to identify the factors that influence personal oral health practices and use of services and to investigate the link between these behaviours and selected oral health outcomes. In view of the need to base policy decisions on relevant and reliable data, the study also aimed to develop a universal methodology for situation analysis that would yield information useful in service evaluation and future planning.
The study, which is the second in a series of large comparative assessments of oral health care systems, was undertaken from 1988 to 1992 at seven sites in five countries. Sites were selected as representing a diversity of conditions in such important areas as fluoride availability, school oral health programmes, sugar consumption and diet, systems of health care, and procedures for covering the costs of both preventive and curative care. Some 17,000 persons were included in the study.
The study found that oral diseases had a significant impact on quality of life; the strong correlation found between perceived general health and oral health marks the first scientifically based evidence supporting the common view that oral health is part of general health. This finding argues strongly for the integration of an oral health component into health programme planning.
Educational Imperatives for Oral Health Personnel: Change or Decay?
Report of a WHO Expert Committee
Technical Report Series, No. 794
1990, 43 pages [E, F, S]
ISBN 92 4 120794 9
Sw.fr. 6.-/US $5.40; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 4.20
Order no. 1100794
Alerts governments and educators to trends in disease patterns and technological advances that call for sweeping changes in the education of oral health personnel. Adopting a future-oriented approach, the report draws upon the WHO Global Oral Data Bank to document worldwide trends in oral diseases and forecast a number of dramatic changes in the clinical functions of dentists and the focus of routine oral health work. Emphasis is placed on the immediate need for thorough revisions in the organization of oral health services, the educational process, and the content of courses.
The most extensive section analyses global trends, in both industrialized and developing countries, for dental caries, periodontal conditions, tooth loss and edentulousness, developmental disorders, systemic diseases, and traumatic injuries. Key forecasts include a significant reduction in the need for treatment of caries and periodontal diseases, a prevalence of other oral diseases that will not support a dental profession of present-day proportions, and a corresponding decline in the number of oral health personnel, particularly dentists and dental assistants.
The second half of the report discusses the immediate educational changes needed to protect against a situation where oral health personnel are oversupplied, overqualified for routine clinical functions, and yet inadequately trained to perform the specialized procedures that will be needed in the future.
"... an excellent overview of the problems of
planning dental education..."
Journal of Dentistry
Fluorides and Oral Health
Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Oral Health Status and Fluoride Use
WHO Technical Report Series, No. 846
1994, v + 37 pages [C, E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 120846 5
Sw.fr. 8.-/US $7.20; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 5.60
Order no. 1100846
Evaluates recent scientific and clinical data on the safety and effectiveness of fluorides as a measure for preventing dental caries. Adopting a public health approach, the report aims to determine which of the currently available methods of fluoride administration will provide the best, safest, and most cost-effective protection in different parts of the world, with different resources and population needs. Particular attention is given to the question of whether population-wide protection can be achieved without the development of dental fluorosis. All other potential health risks linked to fluoride use are also critically assessed.
The first half of the report concentrates on recent studies of fluoride that strengthen current public health policy. Separate sections summarize what is known about environmental sources of fluoride, its metabolism and excretion, its effects on teeth and bones, and the levels needed to prevent caries. The second half reviews clinical experiences with each of the main methods of fluoride administration, including fluoride in drinking-water, fluoridated salt, fluoridated milk, fluoride supplements in the form of tablets and drops, fluoridated toothpastes, and topical use of fluoride. Each method is considered in terms of its safety, limitations, public health impact, costs, optimum concentration or dosage, and advantages in particular populations or situations. Water fluoridation is cited as the most effective method of reaching large populations. The report also calls for an adjustment in recommended levels of fluoride and the development of affordable and effective fluoride-containing toothpastes as a major priority for much of the world.
A Guide for Epidemiological Studies of Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection
S.L. Melnick, R. Nowjack-Raymer, D.V. Kleinman, and P.A.
1993, ix + 27 pages [E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 154453 8
Sw.fr. 10.-/US $9.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 7.-
Order no. 1150399
Establishes the framework for a standardized approach to the epidemiological study of oral conditions associated with HIV infection. Noting that oral lesions are among the first symptoms of both infection with HIV and progression to AIDS, the guide responds to the need to facilitate data collection and comparisons through use of standardized terminology, standardized diagnostic criteria and procedures for clinical examination, and standardized methods for the analysis and reporting of data. In presenting such a framework, the authors aim to encourage the comparison of findings from different studies and different populations, while also making oral health status an integral part of optimum case management and of surveillance activities. The guide is addressed to established epidemiologists with an interest in HIV-associated oral conditions as well as to oral health practitioners who lack specialized knowledge of epidemiology.
The most extensive section provides a guide to the design of epidemiological studies, including advice on the establishment of objectives, the selection of appropriate study populations, and the determination of sample size. To facilitate consistent diagnosis and reporting, the guide sets out concise clinical diagnostic criteria for each of the most common HIV-associated fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases, idiopathic conditions, and neoplasms having oral manifestations. Cases where specific tests are needed to confirm diagnosis are clearly indicated. The book also defines standard clinical procedures for the examination of the oral cavity and lips. The remaining sections provide examples of data analysis and layout, and discuss the format of study reports. The guide concludes with brief definitions of common epidemiological terms.
Oral Health Surveys
1997, vii + 66 pages + 6 pages colour plates (available in
English; French and Spanish in preparation
ISBN 92 4 154493 7
Sw.fr. 19./US $17.10; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 13.30
Order no. 1154275
Now in its fourth revised edition, this widely used manual describes basic methods for conducting oral health surveys. Designed to assist epidemiological surveyors and planners of oral health services, the book presents standardized methodologies for collecting and reporting data on oral diseases and conditions and for estimating future demands on oral health care services. Chapters advocate use of a practical and economic sample design approach supported by a description of diagnostic criteria that can be readily understood and applied in all countries. Recommended survey methods, which have been used by over 130 health administrations throughout the world, have proved their capacity to yield reliable, useful, and internationally comparable data on oral health status and treatment needs.
New in this edition are sections on the evaluation of extra-oral conditions, the oral mucosa, enamel opacities/hypoplasia, loss of periodontal attachment, and dentofacial anomalies. The book also features detailed instructions for using the WHO oral health assessment form in its updated version. Use of this standardized form, which is strongly encouraged by WHO, is supported by a computer data processing service available on request.
The book has seven chapters. The opening chapters explain general principles for designing basic oral health surveys and offer advice on how to organize and conduct a survey. Chapter three describes ways of ensuring that the data collected are as consistent and reliable as possible. The importance of training examiners to make consistent clinical judgements is repeatedly emphasized. Guidelines for implementing the survey are provided in chapter four, which offers practical advice on topics ranging from the responsibilities of personnel and ways to avoid mistakes, through recommended instruments and supplies, to simple measures for ensuring that examination areas are efficiently organized.
The fifth and most extensive chapter provides detailed instructions for gathering, coding, and recording the data needed to complete each of the assessment form's 15 sections. Information includes recommended procedures for conducting the clinical examination, clear explanations of relevant codes, and descriptions of the criteria for their use. The practical value of this information is enhanced through the inclusion of numerous illustrations and six pages of colour plates.
The remaining chapters describe the assistance that can be obtained from WHO and explain how survey reports should be prepared and presented. A list of 38 tables that can be prepared by WHO from data collected in the survey is provided in an annex.
Recent Advances in Oral Health
Report of a WHO Expert Committee
Technical Report Series, No. 826
1992, vi + 37 pages [C, E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 120826 0
Sw.fr. 7._/US $6.30; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 4.90
Order no. 1100826
Evaluates striking recent advances in oral health care technology, materials, and clinical methods in terms of their capacity to improve the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Addressed to oral health authorities, the report makes a special effort to identify new methods and technologies that have proved their advantages, in terms of costs as well as effectiveness, and can thus be implemented at the public health level. Particular attention is given to methods and techniques that can improve oral health care in settings where resources are limited and high-technology equipment is scarce. The report also shows how dramatic improvements in scientific knowledge and technology have contributed to the minimally invasive, low-intervention approach to oral health care that is now recommended.
Information is presented in three sections. The first describes the wide range of new options for the prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and for the early detection of oral cancer. The second section covers advanced techniques for diagnosis and treatment. Highlights include new materials with caries-preventive or caries-arresting properties for use in restoration, new tests for the early diagnosis of periodontal diseases, and the use of computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacture technology for the fabrication of inlays. The report concludes that a caries lesion in its early stage need never become a cavity, and that the vast majority of periodontal problems can now be treated using non-surgical, conservative approaches. The report also documents the growing involvement of oral health care practitioners in the diagnosis and management of oral cancers and oral manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS. The final section reviews the increasing role played by computers in the electronic management of data.