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SPECIAL OFFERSpecial offer for the purchase of volumes 1 to 6 in the series: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality ** 60% discount **
Swiss francs 157.--/US $141.30
In developing countries: Swiss francs109.90
Volume 1: Recommendations
Sets out guideline values for a large number of water contaminants relevant to the quality of drinking-water.
Volume 2: Health criteria and other supporting information
Reviews and interprets the extensive toxicological, epidemiological, and clinical evidence that shaped the determination of guideline values for drinking-water quality.
Volume 3: Surveillance and control of community water supplies
A comprehensive guide to all practical procedures and technical measures required to ensure the safety of drinking-water supplies in small communities.
Addendum to volume 1: Recommendations
Summarizes new findings that have become available and that call for a reconsideration of selected guidelines values.
Addendum to volume 2: Health criteria and other supporting information
Reviews and interprets new and updated evaluations.
Addendum: Microbiological Agents in Drinking-water
Reviews pathogens that occur widely in water.
To order, please use the order form and quote"Special Offer Guidelines Drinking-water Quality".
Analysis of Wastewater for Use in Agriculture
A Laboratory Manual of Parasitological and Bacteriological Techniques
R.M. Ayres and D.D. Mara
1996, iv + 31 pages [E, F, S*]
ISBN 92 4 154484 8
Sw.fr. 12.-/US $10.80; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 8.40
Order no. 1150432
An illustrated guide to the laboratory analysis of treated wastewater intended for use in agriculture. Noting that the use of wastewater for crop irrigation is becoming increasingly common, the book aims to help laboratories ensure that wastewaters intended for agricultural use comply with WHO guideline values for microbiological quality. These values were previously established by WHO in order to protect against the risk that wastewater irrigation may facilitate the transmission of excreta-related diseases. Two major risks are addressed: the transmission of intestinal nematode infections to crop consumers and agricultural workers, and the transmission to crop consumers of faecal bacterial diseases, including bacterial diarrhoea and dysentery, typhoid, and cholera.
Analytical procedures recommended in the manual are simple and effective, require minimum equipment, and can be carried out by persons with little or no previous parasitological or microbiological experience. All procedures are fully explained and clearly illustrated in over 40 photographs, including 20 colour plates. Relevant laboratory skills are also explained with the aim of encouraging standardized performance of procedures.
The manual has three chapters. The first, on sanitary parasitology, provides full details for the performance of the modified Bailenger method for the enumeration of intestinal helminth eggs in wastewater. A brief explanation of the advantages and disadvantages of this method is followed by a list of the simple equipment and consumables required, and an illustrated guide to each step in the analysis. Chapter two, on sanitary bacteriology, provides similarly detailed information for three procedures recommended for the enumeration of faecal coliform bacteria: two most probable number methods and a membrane filtration method. The final chapter sets out guidelines for conducting routine monitoring of faecal coliforms and helminth eggs.
Financial Management of Water Supply and Sanitation
1994, x + 83 pages [C, E, F, S]
ISBN 92 4 154472 4
Sw.fr. 20.-/US $18.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 14.-
Order no. 1150419
Describes a range of financial principles and methods for improving the management of water supply and sanitation services - whether large or small, urban or rural. Addressed to decision-makers, the book shows how financial mechanisms, such as cost recovery, cash raising, and cost containment, can be used to ensure that services are financially sustainable and able to meet users' needs. With this goal in mind, the book helps readers to think through all costs and responsibilities associated with each stage in a project's life span, and then to use this information to set objectives and calculate costs and benefits. Material in the handbook was tested in 20 countries and then further refined in seminars involving over 1000 participants.
The book has two parts. Part one introduces some of the underlying principles for ascertaining that all resources required for services are identified and available. Information ranges from a list of obstacles commonly encountered in developing countries to tips on how to reduce costs and increase revenue. The second and most extensive part provides a practical guide to methods of cost recovery. Using numerous checklists, charts, examples, and schedules for calculating projected costs, chapters offer a step-by-step explanation of the financial and related activities required to achieve cost recovery at each stage in a project's life span, moving from planning and construction, through operation and maintenance, to eventual replacement.
"... While designed primarily as a guide for
operation and control activities, the book will be of interest to a wide range of
planners, project officers and other professionals in water and sanitation
Food, Water and Family Health
A Manual for Community Educators
1994, v + 99 pages [E]
Sw.fr. 17./US $15.30; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 11.90
Order no. 1930130
An illustrated manual, for use in health education, that encourages poor rural communities to introduce simple environmental modifications to promote health and prevent disease. Particular attention is given to elements of basic hygiene and sanitation that protect children from diarrhoeal disease. Written in a simple yet lively narrative style, the manual uses vivid stories, dialogue, and drawings to make its vital health messages relevant to the community setting. Information ranges from drawings illustrating the construction of filtration systems for drinking-water, through instructions for mixing oral rehydration salts, to advice on how fast-breeding fish species can be used to control mosquito larvae and improve nutrition.
The manual has four teaching units. The first, on healthy water and better sanitation, discusses problems associated with water, describes ways to keep the water supply safe, and sets out some simple "golden rules" for safe water. The unit also gives advice on how to construct and maintain latrines and how to ensure that water is safe to drink. Stories and activities presented in unit two explain how simple environmental modifications can help control several diseases, including diarrhoea, Guinea worm disease, schistosomiasis, and malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. Information about HIV infection and the care of people with AIDS is also included.
Healthy food is covered in the third unit, which presents basic facts about nutrition, food safety, the multiple advantages of breast-feeding, appropriate weaning foods, and the protection of children's eyes through basic hygiene and adequate vitamin A intake. The unit also offers advice on healthy food choices when family income is limited. The final unit, on family health, covers nutrition and care during pregnancy, the importance of birth-spacing, and the value of immunization. A list of resources for further information concludes the manual.
Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report
2000, 124 pages
ISBN 92 4 156202 1
Sw.fr. 35.-/US $31.50; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 24.50
Order no. 1150482
Unlike previous monitoring exercises, which relied on information from service providers, the 2000 report uses consumer-based data drawn from household surveys. By focusing on users rather than providers as the primary source of data, the report creates a platform for tracking the local initiatives that are now recognized as central to the attainment of sustained improvements. In another innovation, the report uses technology type as an indicator of access to improved water and sanitation. The definition of adequate coverage is now based on assumptions that certain technologies, such as public standpipes or pour-flush latrines, are better for health than others, such as unprotected springs and public latrines.
The report has eleven chapters. The first presents the main findings of the assessment, emphasizing issues that can aid decisions about the planning and management of services and the investment in priority needs. Chapter two shows the global and regional status of coverage for water supply and sanitation in 1990 and 2000, and discusses key trends within the context of rapid population growth. While noting some inroads into the backlog of people needing improved services, the report cites grim statistics: globally, 1.1 billion people remain without access to improved drinking-water services and 2.4 billion have no access to any form of improved sanitation facilities.
Chapter three, on sector performance, provides information on planning and management in the water supply and sanitation sector, including targets for the sector, constraints to sector development, sector investment, costs and tariffs, and quality of service. Four constraints to development are identified: logistics, funding limitations, inadequate cost-recovery, and inadequate operation and maintenance.
Subsequent chapters consider how the world's largest cities are coping with heavy demands for service coverage, and look at challenges, future needs, and prospects. As data in the report show, individual households are the primary actors in the extension of sanitation coverage, underscoring the need to set priorities and establish strategies that focus on results at the household level.
Chapters in the second half of the report present data on water supply and sanitation coverage for Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Oceania, Europe, and North America. For each region, urban and rural figures are shown, in tables and maps, by country, area, or territory for both 1990 and 2000. Graphs illustrate changes over time as well as coverage targets associated with projected changes in population. Experiences in individual countries are used to highlight typical problems and challenges for the future.
A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation
R. Franceys, J. Pickford and R. Reed
1992, viii + 237 pages [E, F, S]
ISBN 92 4 154443 0
Sw.fr. 47.-/US $42.30; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 32.90
Order no. 1150380
Provides detailed practical and technical advice intended to guide the selection, design, construction, and maintenance of on-site facilities for the removal of human excreta. Addressed to engineers, sanitarians, medical officers, and project planners, the book concentrates on technical options suitable for householders building their own latrines, whether in small communities, rural areas, or deprived urban settlements. Details range from line drawings illustrating features of design and construction, through a list of reasons why improved sanitation may elicit negative responses from users, to instructions for calculating the internal dimensions of a septic tank.
The book features eleven chapters in three parts. Chapters in the first part introduce the foundations of sanitary practice, describe the links between excreta and disease, and explain the numerous social and cultural factors that must be considered at the planning phase. Chapters in the second and most extensive part provide a detailed technical guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all the main options for on-site sanitation. Chapters describe how the different types of latrine work, discuss their relative merits, and set out detailed plans for the construction of latrines and their components. The final part features three chapters on the planning and development of on-site sanitation projects, underscoring the need for a thorough analysis of cultural as well as design features.
"... an intriguing book..."
International Journal of Environmental Studies
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality
Volume 1: Recommendations
(see also the updated addendum to this volume)
1993, x + 188 pages [C, E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 154460 0
Sw.fr. 46.-/US $41.40; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 32.20
Order no. 1151404
Sets out guideline values for a large number of water contaminants relevant to the quality of drinking-water. The book also provides an explanation of how the guideline values should be applied, the criteria used in selecting the various chemical, physical, microbiological, and radiological contaminants considered, a description of the approaches used to derive the guideline values, and brief summary statements supporting the values recommended or explaining why no health-based guideline value is necessary at present.
The guideline values are intended to be used as a basis for the development of national standards that, if properly implemented, will ensure the safety of drinking-water supplies through the elimination, or reduction to a minimum concentration, of constituents of water that are known to be hazardous to health. The book emphasizes that the guideline values recommended are not mandatory limits. In order to define such limits, the guideline values need to be considered in the context of local or national environmental, social, economic, and cultural conditions. The provision of microbiologically safe drinking-water is given the highest priority. The book also provides advice on specific procedures for monitoring the microbiological quality of drinking-water and for selecting appropriate treatment processes for the removal of pathogens.
"... the world's single most important water
quality document ... its recommendations have already set the tone for important changes
in international water quality policy..."
Water and Environment International
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality
Volume 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information
(see also the updated addendum to this volume)
1996, xvi + 973 pages [E, F*, S*]
ISBN 92 4 154480 5
Sw.fr. 260.-/US $234.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 182.-
Order no. 1152404
Reviews and interprets the extensive toxicological, epidemiological, and clinical evidence that shaped the determination of guideline values for drinking-water quality. Organized to parallel and extend the coverage of volume 1, which presented the recommended guideline values and brief summary statements supporting these values, this second work communicates the scientific rationale for individual recommendations based on a critical review of data linking health hazards to specific exposure levels. In so doing, it aims to establish an authoritative basis for national water-quality standards that are consistent with the goal of providing wholesome, safe drinking-water in a sufficient quantity. Well over 3000 references to the literature are included.
The book has 17 chapters presented in three parts. The first, on microbiological aspects, addresses the common and widespread health risks associated with the direct or indirect contamination of drinking-water with human or animal excreta, particularly faeces. The second and most extensive part, which contains almost 800 pages, provides evaluations, supported by toxicological monographs, for each of 36 inorganic constituents and physical parameters, 27 industrial chemicals, 36 pesticides, four disinfectants, and some 23 disinfectant by-products. The final part explains application of the reference level of dose for radiological contaminants in drinking-water. The volume concludes with a list of the hundreds of experts who collaborated in the evaluations, a convenient tabular presentation of the guideline values, and a comprehensive index.
"... an excellent reference book for all
specialists active in water supply and water pollution control..."
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality
Volume 3: Surveillance and Control of Community Water Supplies
1997, xii + 238 pages [E, F*, S*]
ISBN 92 4 154503 8
Sw.fr. 72.-/US $64.80; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 50.40
Order no. 1153404
A comprehensive guide to all practical procedures and technical measures required to ensure the safety of drinking-water supplies in small communities and periurban areas of developing countries. Now in its second edition, the book has been vastly expanded in line with broadened appreciation for the many factors that influence water quality and determine its impact on health. Revisions and additions also reflect considerable new knowledge about the specific technical and social interventions that have the greatest chance of success in situations where resources are scarce and logistic problems are formidable.
Since quality controls may be especially difficult to implement in small communities, the book concentrates on the most essential requirements, emphasizing the crucial need to ensure microbiological safety. Details range from advice on how to design simple pictorial reporting forms for sanitary inspections, to guidance on setting priorities for remedial action, from a comparison of different methods for the analysis of coliform bacteria, to drawings of measures for protecting water sources. Throughout, numerous checklists, charts, diagrams, and model forms are used to enhance the volume's practical value.
The book has eight chapter organized to reflect the key stages in the development of surveillance. Chapter one explains how the basic principles of surveillance and control apply to small-community supplies and alerts readers to several unique problems that need to be overcome. Planning and implementation are discussed in the second chapter, which gives particular attention to the distinct yet complementary responsibilities of the water supply agency and the public health protection agency. Subsequent chapters offer advice on the nature, scope, and timing of sanitary inspections, describe the most appropriate methods for sampling water and assessing its hygienic quality, and explain how the resulting data can be used to improve the quality, coverage, quantity, cost, and continuity of the water supply.
The most extensive chapter describes and illustrates numerous technical interventions for preventing or correcting hazards associated with water from different sources, procedures for water treatment, and methods used to treat and store water in households. Additional strategies for improvement are covered in the remaining chapters, which outline methods of hygiene education in communities and discuss the important role of legislation and regulation.
Further practical guidance is provided in a series of annexes, which give examples of sanitary inspection and hazard scoring forms for 11 different types of water supply, list responsibilities for different categories of surveillance staff, and provide illustrated step-by-step instructions for several sampling methods and analytical tests for use in laboratories and the field.
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality
Addendum to Volume 1: Recommendations
1998, viii + 36 pages (available in English; French and
Spanish in preparation)
ISBN 92 4 154514 3
Sw.fr. 14./US $12.6; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 9.80
Order no. 1154404
This addendum to volume one of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality summarizes new findings that have become available since the second edition was published in 1993, and that call for a reconsideration of selected guideline values issued at that time. In addition, guideline values for four substances are presented here for the first time. The addendum is part of WHO's ongoing effort to ensure that recommendations about the safety of chemical substances found in drinking-water are in line with the latest scientific data.
For some of the substances under review, previously established guideline values have been revised in the light of new evidence. For others, new findings confirm the continuing validity of previous recommendations. Evaluations of chemical substances published in this addendum supersede evaluations of the same substances previously published in the second edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.
Updated or new evaluations are provided for seven inorganic substances (aluminium, boron, copper, nickel, nitrate, nitrite, and uranium), four organic substances (edetic acid, microcystin-LR, benzo[a]pyrene, and fluoranthene), ten pesticides (bentazone, carbofuran, cyanazine, 1,2-dibromoethane, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1,2-dichloropropane, diquat, glyphosate, pentachlorophenol, and terbuthylazine), and a disinfectant by-product (chloroform). The guideline values recommended by WHO are not mandatory limits. Such limits should be set by national or regional authorities, using a risk-benefit approach and taking into consideration local environmental, social, economic and cultural conditions.
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality
Addendum to Volume 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information
1998, viii + 283 pages (English)
Sw.fr. 35./US $31.50: in developing countries: Sw.fr. 24.50
Order no. 1930128
This companion volume reviews and interprets the extensive toxicological, epidemiological, and clinical evidence that formed the basis for the new or updated evaluations issued in the addendum to Volume 1 of the Guidelines. Covering the same 22 chemical substances, the volume communicates the scientific rationale for each individual recommendation. Well over 1,000 references to the recent literature are included.
Evaluations of chemical substances published in this addendum supersede evaluations of the same substances previously published in the second edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Addendum: Microbiological Agents in Drinking-water
2001, 141 pages
ISBN 92 4 154535 6
Swiss francs 35./US $31.50
In developing countries: Swiss francs 24.50
Order no. 1155404
Unlike the analogous chemical reviews in the Guidelines, the
microbiological review documents do not conclude with "safe" or
"tolerable" exposure levels for the pathogens. The microbiological quality of
drinking-water can vary rapidly and widely, and even brief exposures to pathogens may have
serious health consequences. Analytical techniques for recognized pathogens may be
time-consuming and complex, and are not always available, and knowledge of the identity of
waterborne pathogens is in any case incomplete. The microbiological reviews therefore
summarize current knowledge of transmission, attenuation, and removal of the individual
pathogens, and of the effectiveness of measures for interrupting transmission.
D. Mara and S. Cairncross
1989, vii + 187 pages [C, E, F, R, S]
ISBN 92 4 154248 9
Sw.fr. 35.-/US $31.50; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 24.50
Order no. 1150324
Presents and explains the full range of practical and technical factors that need to be considered when planning, designing, and implementing schemes for the safe reuse of wastewater and excreta in agriculture and aquaculture. Emphasis is placed on the practical implications of new knowledge indicating that the recycling of wastewater and excreta can now be managed in ways that eliminate risks to health. In keeping with the need to conserve resources, the book also presents compelling arguments for the environmental advantages of reuse schemes, including increased crop yields, reduced requirements for artificial fertilizers, avoidance of surface water pollution, conservation of soil and freshwater resources, and desertification control.
Chapters in the first half of the book explain why human wastes are increasingly regarded as a safe and valuable resource for use in crop irrigation, soil fertilization, and aquaculture. Readers are given detailed information on both potential and actual health risks posed by each of 30 excreta-related pathogens. The second half of the book provides richly detailed guidance on technical options for health protection and on the legal and financial components of project planning and implementation.
"... of enormous practical importance as a
strategy for sustainable development ... succeeds in giving an indication of policy and
conduct for safe use of human wastes..."
Tropical and Geographical Medicine
"... a valuable, easy-to-read introduction to
Tropical Diseases Bulletin
Management and Control
A best practice training manual
By Malcolm Farley
2001, 173 pages [E]
Swiss francs: 20./US $18.00
In developing countries: Swiss francs 14.
Order no. 1930189
This training manual is aimed at professionals responsible for Operation and Maintenance of water supply systems, who already have some experience of training. It will help the implementation of training activities and will be an important tool for trainers in the design, preparation and carrying out of training courses on leakage control.
Operation and Maintenance of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Systems
A Guide for Managers
1994, ix + 102 pages [C*, E, F]
ISBN 92 4 154471 6
Sw.fr. 23.-/US $20.70; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 16.10
Order no. 1150416
Describes a systems approach to the operation and maintenance of drinking-water and sanitation services in urban areas of developing countries. Addressed to managers and other personnel with decision-making responsibilities, the book responds to ample evidence that poor management has had the greatest single negative impact on the quality of water supply and sanitation services. The guide, which is intended to serve as a reference source and conceptual framework, covers virtually all the procedures, activities, projects, and areas of managerial responsibility, at different levels, needed to ensure that water supply and sanitation services function continuously, efficiently, and to their full capacity. Emphasis is placed on procedures that can help control water losses.
The book has five parts. The first describes the use of the management systems approach to analyse the functions of drinking-water and sanitation agencies and to solve operation and maintenance problems. Part two, on management, provides a step-by-step account of the key responsibilities and functions involved in managing an agency's operation and maintenance activities. The third and most extensive part serves as a detailed guide to the planning and control of operation and maintenance procedures. While most attention is given to projects for controlling water loss, part three also covers programmes for controlling the production and quality of drinking-water, and for sewage collection, treatment, re-use, and disposal. The remaining chapters describe information systems and the procedures and stages of implementation. Of particular practical value is a five-page tabular presentation of performance indicators that can be used to assess the effectiveness of specific activities.
" ... presents in a simple and readable form the
basic managerial structures to ensure that every job to be done has a person or an
organization responsible for doing it ... worth reading by managers and students of
management everywhere ... The modest cost should allow it to be bought by every water
supply organization, most libraries, and many individuals..."
International Journal of Environmental Studies
Parasitic Diseases in Water Resources Development
The Need for Intersectoral Negotiation
J.M. Hunter, L. Rey, K.Y. Chu, E.O. Adekolu-John, and
1993, x + 152 pages + 8 colour plates [E, F, S]
ISBN 92 4 156155 6
Sw.fr. 35.-/US $31.50; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 24.50
Order no. 1150396
Issues a call for action to correct the gross neglect of the health consequences of water impoundment and irrigation projects. Arguments and proposed lines of action respond to the documented magnitude of human misery and incapacity that follow when water development projects make no provision for disease control. Concentrating on parasitic diseases as the most dramatic and reliable indicators of adverse effects on health, the book aims to persuade the financiers, planners, and managers of these projects to make health concerns a central part of the development dialogue.
To this end the book draws upon a large body of evidence to demonstrate both the magnitude of project-related health risks and the feasibility of their prevention and control. Citing the traditionally passive role of the health sector as a contributing factor, the book also aims to encourage health authorities to enter the project cycle with a more insistent voice. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on recent knowledge about parasitic diseases that underscores the feasibility of formulating policies where the goal of economic progress is compatible with the protection and promotion of health.
"... a useful reference on a major public health
problem ... belongs on the shelves of those in ministries of health and (perhaps even more
so!) in ministries of agriculture..."
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The PHAST Initiative: Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation
A New Approach to Working with Communities
1997, vi + 39 pages [E, F, S]
Sw.fr. 12./US $10.80; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 8.40
Order no. 1930129
Describes an exciting new approach, based on an innovative set of participatory techniques, that has demonstrated its ability to promote hygienic behaviour, sanitation improvements, and community management of water and sanitation facilities. Known as the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation, or PHAST, initiative, the approach was carefully developed and tested in both urban and rural areas of four African countries: Botswana, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Results of these tests indicate an unprecedented involvement of communities, the particular suitability of PHAST techniques to resource-poor settings, and remarkable success in terms of environmental and behavioural improvements.
The initiative is described in five sections. The first explains how PHAST functions as a core set of concept-based tools, methods, and materials, which integrate basic epidemiological concepts with a participatory methodology. Central to the approach are a respect for people's innate ability to address and resolve their own problems, a creative learning approach based on active discovery by the community, and firm evidence that lasting change in human behaviour depends on understanding and believing. The document explains how the approach stimulates a very high degree of community involvement and enthusiasm while also allowing outsiders to appreciate the depth and breadth of local knowledge and intuition. Most important, results show that the approach works to transform the helpless mentality associated with ignorance or poverty into self-esteem and confident self-help, even in the absence of literacy or formal schooling.
Section two explains how the methodology was developed at workshops in African countries. These workshops developed an approach that relies heavily on both the training of extension workers and on the development of graphic materials in locally adapted sets, or "toolkits". These include posters depicting routes of oral-faecal contamination and various preventive measures, and drawings and photographs produced for a popular exercise in "three-pile sorting", where depicted situations are sorted as good, bad or in-between. Other tools include a pocket chart which serves as an investigative tool, visual materials that help distinguish between illnesses requiring curative attention and those that can be addressed through a preventive strategy initiated by the community, and instructions for preparing community maps.
Subsequent sections give examples of the impressive and continuing results of the initiative, whether involving behavioural change or the construction and maintenance of latrines, and set out lessons learned, particularly concerning the approach's capacity to help communities determine what they really need and are prepared to pay for in terms of money, resources, and time. A final section gives advice on how the approach can be adopted more widely and discusses the enabling factors involved.
PHAST Step-by-Step Guide: A Participatory Approach for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease
S. Wood, R. Sawyer and M. Simpson-Hébert
1998, ix + 126 pages [E]
Sw.fr. 16./US $14.40; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 11.20
Order no. 1930131
A spiral-bound manual offering step-by-step instructions for helping communities improve hygiene behaviour, prevent cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases, and manage their own water and sanitation facilities. Addressed to facilitators working in the community, the manual uses the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation, or PHAST, approach, an exciting new methodology which relies on locally-prepared visual "toolkits" to stimulate community enthusiasm and participation. Recommended materials and activities were extensively field tested in four African countries.
The manual has three parts. The first introduces the PHAST methodology, explains the purpose and contents of the manual, and communicates essential facts about diarrhoeal diseases and modes of transmission. Since community participation is at the heart of the PHAST approach, part one also discusses the processes of community awareness and behavioural change, and includes some practical tips on ways to stimulate community involvement. Against this background, the PHAST approach is presented as a sequence of seven steps, moving from the identification and analysis of problems, through the quest for solutions and selection of options, to monitoring and evaluation of results. Each step is accompanied by a detailed description of activities, which includes information on the purpose, time and materials required, what to do, and how to manage any difficulties that may arise.
Part three, on making a toolkit, gives
general advice on selecting and engaging local artists, followed by detailed guidelines
for PHAST artists on the preparation of drawings for each activity described in the
manual. Sample drawings from Africa, India, and the USA are used to illustrate the need
for adaptation to local cultural settings.
Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Systems
A Training Package for Managers and Planners
prepared by F. Brikké
2000, iv + 292 pages [E]
Sw.fr. 44./US $39.60
In developing countries: Sw.fr. 30.80
Order no. 1930182
A spiral-bound collection of training materials and activities designed to help planners, managers, and engineers improve water supply and sanitation projects through the better management of their operation and maintenance. Addressed to course facilitators, the manual contains abundant notes, background information, overheads, work sheets, exercises, and fact sheets specific to conditions seen in rural areas of the developing world. Information ranges from fact sheets describing the strengths and limitations of specific technologies, through a list of factors that influence a community's willingness to pay for services, to a discussion of nineteen tools for planning and working with communities.
The manual is intended for use in a two-week course or workshop with 12 to 15 participants. Course content, which was developed following almost seven years of field testing and revision, draws on lessons learned from the failure of many projects to produce sustainable services. Foremost among these lessons is knowledge that social, managerial, institutional, financial, and environmental issues are as vital to success as the technical features of project design.
The manual has two parts. The first provides a trainer's guide for facilitators. Chapters explain the objectives of the course, provide a daily timetable, and offer tips on effective training tools, emphasizing the value of participatory methods such as field visits, case studies, brainstorming, role play, and games. A checklist for planning is also included.
Course contents are set out in the second and most extensive part, which is organized according to four modules. Modules are subdivided
into units, each focused on a specific training goal. Module one introduces current concepts in the water supply and sanitation sector, and explains how water, health, sanitation, and environmental protection are interrelated. Module two, on situation analysis, focuses on ways to identify all actors involved in operation and maintenance, to assess constraints, and to identify and analyse objectives in a logical way.
The third and most extensive module addresses the range of factors that influence sustainable operation and maintenance, including technology choice. Major attention is given to practical tools and procedures for working with communities and ensuring their participation. The final module covers planning tools, concentrating on use of the Objective Oriented Project Planning methodology.
WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
edited by M. Simpson-Hébert and S. Wood
1998, xv + 277 pages [E]
Sw.fr. 40./US $36.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 28.
Order no. 1930147
A collection of original articles, case studies, checklists, worksheets, and stimulating ideas aimed at raising the profile of sanitation and thus attracting the assistance and investments needed to make progress. Noting that tremendous efforts over the past two decades have had little impact on sanitary conditions for much of the world, the book calls for a revolution in the way the sanitation sector defines its objectives and conducts its work. With this goal in mind, the book serves as a rich resource of new ideas, solid lessons based on past experience, guidance on "best practices" in meeting a range of difficult needs, and some innovative new tools for both promoting sanitation and introducing ecologically-friendly technologies. Although all areas of sanitation are considered, the major emphasis is on the management of human wastes.
The book contains 40 articles most of which were written especially for this collection presented in four chapters. The first introduces the magnitude of the challenge: human excreta is probably the world's number one pollutant; lack of sanitation is responsible for most of the diseases and deaths in developing countries; many conventional approaches are based on false assumptions that make failure inevitable. Past errors include a preoccupation with safe water supply and assumption that sanitation would follow, use of a restricted number of "good" technologies, the focus of engineering education on sewerage systems, and a failure to understand that consumers are more interested in the prestige, convenience, comfort and privacy of sanitary facilities than in theories about germs and disease.
Against this background, articles in chapter two provide ideas on promotional techniques that can be used to gain political will and secure partnerships, whether at the government level or with nongovernmental organizations and the private sector. Noting that the future of sanitation rests more on the behaviour of politicians than of sanitary engineers, the chapter contains abundant practical advice on how to mobilize the media, engage the commitment of politicians, and take advantage of the self-interests of the private sector. Case studies from Uganda and India show how these guidelines and principles work in practice.
Chapter three, on programme design, addresses the need in a sector marred by past failures and on the verge of stagnation to produce good "showcase" programmes and projects. With this need in mind, the chapter sets out a number of principles, derived from an analysis of good sanitation programmes, as statements of "best practice" in this sector. These principles are illustrated through articles on gender, strategies for changing hygiene behaviour, participatory approaches, and the use of household financing. Principles and examples are then summarized in several checklists that can help field staff determine whether sanitation projects, including those designed for emergency situations, are in line with state-of-the-art "best practices".
The final chapter uses case studies to illustrate recent innovations that hold particular promise for the promotion of sanitation. These include a number of child-centred and participatory approaches as well as several new technologies. Pointing towards an exciting future, these technologies reflect an ecological approach to sanitation that aims to recycle nutrients and prevent water pollution and further water scarcity. All case studies also illustrate the importance of promoting sanitation through the use of participatory approaches that respect the consumer's wishes and conventional wisdom.
Surface Water Drainage for Low-income Communities
1991, v + 88 pages [E, F, S]
ISBN 92 4 154416 3
Sw.fr. 16.-/US $14.40; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 11.20
Order no. 1150352
An illustrated practical and technical guide to the design, construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance of surface water drainage systems in low-income urban areas. Noting that drainage often figures first on the list of felt needs among the residents of such areas, the book concentrates on the many "do-it-yourself" measures that communities can undertake to construct a simple, effective, low-cost drainage system or to rehabilitate an existing system that has fallen into disrepair. Projects conducted with engineering assistance and municipal support are also thoroughly described.
The opening chapters provide a perspective on the risks associated with surface water, including the dangers of landslides, floods, and collapsing homes as well as numerous diseases. Readers are introduced to four principal phases of a typical neighbourhood drainage improvement programme and then given full details on the technical aspects of drainage design, construction, and maintenance, including the pros and cons of different technical options. Details range from a list of reasons why closed drains should rarely be used in developing countries, through the precautions and safety checks to be followed before entering a manhole, to advice on what to do when an existing drainage system has collapsed, become blocked, or needs repair and rehabilitation. Advice, warnings, and alerts to common pitfalls are supported by repeated reference to real experiences with community drainage projects in different parts of the world. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the many - and often ingenious - things that can be done using inexpensive local materials and community skills.
"... very useful for the small community ...
promotes simple, but effective low-cost techniques for urban drainage..."
The Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Tools for Assessing the Operation and Maintenance Status of Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries
2000, iv + 46 pages [E]
Sw.fr. 14./US $12.60
In developing countries: Sw.fr. 9.80
Order no. 1930180
Sets out a managerial framework, supported by specific assessment tools, for measuring and evaluating the status of operation and maintenance of water supply and sanitation services. Noting that problems with operation and maintenance have long been recognized as key constraints to sustainability, the book aims to encourage professional staff in utilities, local governments, and nongovernmental organizations to undertake performance assessments and use the results to introduce improvements. The book also aims to convince policy-makers that investments in water supply and sanitation will be optimized when management strategies give operation and maintenance a high profile. The assessment tools described can be applied to a wide range of activities carried out by utilities, governments, and communities in both rural and urban settings.
The book has two parts. The first introduces the concepts of monitoring and evaluation and explains how performance indicators can be used to expose problems and then formulate policies and plans which either correct the problems or avoid them. Part one also describes the advantages and limitations of three systems for the management of operation and maintenance: centrally managed systems, the community managed approach, and household managed systems. Part one concludes with a list of management constraints that must be addressed before tools for improving specific aspects of performance can be applied.
Against this background, the second and most extensive part presents nine tools for assessing the operation and maintenance status of water supply and sanitation. The tools, which are presented as a series of steps, can be used to establish objectives, develop a framework for performance measurement, carry out the measurement and reporting of performance, and prepare and implement action plans. Particular attention is given to the use of 40 carefully selected performance indicators, which are set out in a series of tables supported by explanatory notes.
Water and Sanitation in Islam
The Right Path to Health: Health Education through
Religion, No. 2
Nonserial publication of the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
1996, 27 pages [E]
ISBN 92 9021 169 5
Sw.fr. 10.-/US $9.00; in developing countries: Sw.fr. 7.-
Order no. 1462014
Identifies Islamic teachings and rulings relevant to water and sanitation and interprets these in terms of healthy individual and community behaviours. The text, which responds to the strong influence of religion in Eastern Mediterranean countries, incorporates the views of a leading Muslim scholar, supported by the expertise of health professionals. Emphasis is placed on water-related behaviours that promote high standards of personal hygiene and thus help prevent disease. Main points covered include the importance of safe drinking-water, the prevention of water-borne diseases through community and personal measures, and the principles of personal cleanliness, including precise instructions, in line with Islamic teachings, for bathing and scrupulous routine cleaning and care of the body.
The potential to increase consistency in
approaches to assessment and management of water-related microbial hazards was tackled by
an international group of experts concerned with drinking water, irrigation and wastewater
use and recreational/bathing water. It included individuals with expertise in public
health, epidemiology, risk assessment, risk management, standards and regulation,
communication and economics. Subsequently, a series of reviews was progressively developed
and refined, which addressed the principal issues of concern linking water and health to
the establishment and implementation of effective, affordable and efficient guidelines and
standards. This book is based on these reviews, together with the discussions of the
harmonised framework and the issues surrounding it.
Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health
Edited by L. Fewtrel and J. Bartram
2001, xiv + 424 pages
ISBN 92 4 154533 X
Swiss francs 126./US $113.40
In developing countries: Swiss francs 88.20
Order no. 1150489
This book will prove invaluable to all those concerned with issues relating to microbial water quality and health, including environmental and public health scientists, water scientists, policy makers and regulators.
Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water
A Guide to their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring, and Management
To be published November-December 1998 on behalf of WHO by:
F & FN Spon
11 New Fetter Lane
London EC4) 4EE
Telephone: +44 171 583 9855
Fax: +44 171 843 2298
Web site for further information
Prepared by an internal group of experts, this guide examines the need to protect drinking-water and other water supplies from contamination by toxic cyanobacteria and to control their impact on health. Chapters discuss the nature, diversity and global occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria, their consequences for public health, and methods for the assessment, management, investigation and treatment of contaminated water supplies. Programmes for monitoring the causes and occurrence of cyanobacteria in water and techniques for the analysis of water samples are described.