e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

Exclusive breastfeeding

Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. It protects against common childhood diseases such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and may also have longer-term benefits such as lowering mean blood pressure and cholesterol, and reducing the prevalence of obesity and type-2 diabetes.

Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk. No other liquids or solids are given – not even water – with the exception of oral rehydration solution, or drops/syrups of vitamins, minerals or medicines.

WHO recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health. Thereafter, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods, while continuing to breastfeed for up to two years or more.

WHO documents

GRC-approved guidelines
Other guidance documents


Related Cochrane reviews
Other related systematic reviews
Clinical trials

Last update:

25 March 2014 13:26 CET

Category 1 intervention

Guidelines have been recently approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee