e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects

The nutritional status of women prior to and during pregnancy plays a key role in fetal growth and development. Poor nutritional status in a woman in the period before she conceives and in early pregnancy (up to 12 weeks gestation),may increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This periconceptional period is therefore considered to be an important time for interventions that promote maternal health and thereby increase the likelihood of positive pregnancy outcomes.

Birth defects, or congenital malformations, are structural or functional abnormalities present from birth and can be caused by a number of factors, including micronutrient deficiencies. Neural tube defects such as spina bifida are one of the most common congenital malformations.

Current evidence suggests that folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period, either alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, can prevent neural tube defects.

WHO recommendations

All women, from the moment they begin trying to conceive until 12 weeks of gestation, should take a folic acid supplement.

Women who have had a fetus diagnosed as affected by a neural tube defect or have given birth to a baby with a neural tube defect should receive information on the risk of recurrence, be advised on the risk of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and be offered high-dose supplementation.


A suggested scheme for periconceptional folic acid supplementation can be found in the WHO guidance document, Prevention of neural tube defects. Standards for maternal and neonatal care, under 'WHO documents' below.

WHO documents


GRC-approved guidelines

Status: not currently available

Other guidance documents

Evidence


Related Cochrane reviews
Other related systematic reviews
Clinical trials
Share

Last update:

10 October 2014 12:36 CEST

Category 2 intervention

Systematic review(s) have been conducted but no recent guidelines yet available that have been approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee