eLENA interventions and global targets
Evidence linking sodium intake to global targets*
Global NCD targets for 2025
A 30% relative reduction in mean population intake of salt/sodium
The practice of reducing sodium intake contributes to a reduction in mean population intake of salt/sodium.
A 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised blood pressure or contain the prevalence of raised blood pressure, according to national circumstances
Direct evidence for the effect of reducing sodium intake on the prevalence of raised blood pressure comes from the results of a 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis which found an association between reduced sodium intake and decrease in blood pressure, which was strongest in those with hypertension.
* With few exceptions, links noted between interventions and global nutrition or NCD targets are based on published evidence resulting from systematic reviews of the literature. Individual studies were not assessed unless they were included in such a published review.
Coloured icons indicate that there is evidence of a direct link between the intervention of interest and target(s); i.e. systematic reviews are available assessing the effect of the intervention on an outcome directly relevant to the targets (e.g. prevalence of stunting, rate of breastfeeding, etc.).
Grey icons indicate that there is evidence of an indirect link between the intervention of interest and target(s). Where indirect links have been noted, systematic reviews linking the intervention directly to one or more targets are not currently available; i.e. the studies included in the review(s) do not assess the effect of the intervention on the outcomes that are directly relevant to the targets. For example, systematic reviews directly linking breastfeeding to stunting are not currently available. However, systematic reviews linking breastfeeding to a reduction in diarrhoea are available, as are reviews linking diarrhoea to increases in stunting. Therefore, interventions that increase breastfeeding rates may indirectly reduce stunting. Additionally, indirect links may be noted when the only available outcome data is for an indicator used to assess outcomes relevant to the targets. For example, body mass index (BMI) is an indicator for overweight and obesity and an intervention that reduces BMI may contribute to decreasing rates of overweight and/or obesity. Therefore, an indirect link would be noted between interventions for which systematic review(s) report BMI as an outcome, and the global overweight and obesity targets.