Health indicators in Burundi continue to feature among the worst in the world. Malaria remains one of the main public health concerns, with a mortality rate of 47% among children under five. Maternal mortality is as high as 855 deaths per 100 000 live births. Moreover, cholera and meningitis epidemics occur within regular intervals with thousands of cases to be confirmed and treated. Case fatality rates of these diseases are often high because medical staff is not enough qualified, efficient control systems are not always available, performance of epidemiological surveillance systems is poor and laboratories are under-equipped.
In terms of population movements, 2006 was characterized by a low level of returns. At the time of writing, it is doubtful whether the downwardly revised target of 55 000 Burundian returnees will be achieved. Nonetheless, other unforeseen movements were recorded including the arrival of Rwandan asylum seekers, the return of Burundian asylum seekers from Tanzania, and the expulsion of Burundians living without refugee status in Western Tanzania.