Despite an overall improvement of the security situation, the region’s crises continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Great Lakes Region (GLR). Access to healthcare, especially for those displaced by conflict, has been limited largely due to a collapse in preexisting health infrastructure. This has contributed to an increasing number of deaths related to communicable and vaccinepreventable diseases. Further complications are attributable to malnutrition. Maternal, infant and under-five mortality is also adversely affected by all factors mentioned. Diseases such as malaria and cholera are endemic in many parts of the region and 2006 saw the re-emergence of plague in the DRC. The threat of cross-border spread of diseases, facilitated by population movement, also requires continued efforts towards the development of cross-border disease surveillance systems. A mortality survey of the International Rescue Committee shows that appro-imately 38 000 deaths occur each month in the DRC over and above normal levels; 70% of these deaths are, according to the study, attributable to easily preventable and treatable diseases.