Environment and health in developing countries


Notes and references

Notes

Mortality from urban air pollution is estimated with reference to small particulates as an indicator for exposure; mortality from exposure to lead (both from airborne particles and from other sources) is thus presented here as a separate estimate. Mortality rates from malaria, diarrhoea and unintentional poisonings are derived from estimates of annual deaths by cause, age and WHO subregion in 2002, cited in the World health report 2003(3). Mortality from indoor air pollution is derived from attributable mortality by risk factor and age group, for the year 2000, cited in the World health report 2002 (2). Mortality from road traffic accidents is derived from the World report on road traffic injury prevention (4). Proportion of deaths among pedestrians in poor countries is from Nantulya VM, Reich MR. "The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries" (5). Reference to "developing countries" refers to region and mortality stratum as defined in the World health report 2003 (3).

References

  • Smith, K, Corvalán, C & Kjellstrom, T. How much global ill health is attributable to environmental factors? Epidemiology 1999; 10 (5): 573-84.
  • The World health report 2002 - reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002.
  • The World health report 2003 - shaping the future. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.
  • Peden, M et al., eds. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva, World Bank/World Health Organization, 2004.
  • Nantulya, VM, Reich, MR. The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries. British Medical Journal 2002; 324 (7346):1139-41.
  • Fewtrell, L, Kaufmann, R & Prüss-Üstün, A. Lead: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local level. WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003, pp. 54-55.
  • McMichael, AJ et al., eds. Climate Change and Human Health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.
  • Goldman, L, Tran, N. Toxics and poverty: the impact of toxic substances on the poor in developing countries. Washington, DC, The World Bank, 2002.
  • FAO/UNEP/WHO. Childhood pesticide poisoning: information for advocacy and action. Geneva, United Nations Environment Programme, 2004.
  • Montgomery, M, et al, eds. Cities transformed: demographic change and its implications in the developing world. London, Earthscan, 2004.
  • Health effects of outdoor air pollution in developing countries of Asia; a literature review. Boston, Health Effects Institute, 2004.
  • Neglected global epidemics: three growing threats. The world health report 2003 - shaping the future. Geneva, The World Health Organization, 2003.
  • Physical Activity, Environmental Issues. World Health Organization, (http://www.who.int/hpr/physicalactiv/environment.shtml. accessed 4 October, 2004).
  • Dora, C & Phillips, M, eds. Transport, environment and health. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, no. 89. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, 2000.
  • OECD environmental outlook for the chemicals industry. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Environment Directorate, 2001.
  • Human development report - consumption for human development. New York and Oxford, United Nations Development Programme, 1998.
  • Yáñez, L, Ortiz, D, Calderon, J, Batres, L, Carrizales, L, Mejia, J et al. Overview of human health and chemical mixtures: problems facing developing countries. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110 (6): 901-909.
  • Taylor, LH, Latham, SM & Woolhouse, ME. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2001; 356 (1411): 983-9.
  • Linking poverty reduction and environmental management: policy challenges and opportunities. Washington, D.C., UK Department for International Development (DFID)/ European Commission/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank, 2002.
  • Birley, M. Guidelines for forecasting the vector-borne disease implications of water resources development. Geneva, PEEM Secretariat, WHO, 1991.
  • Human health and dams – The World Health Organization's submission to the World Commission on Dams. Geneva, 2000.
  • Van der Hoek, W. How can better farming methods reduce malaria? Acta Tropica 2004; 89 ((2004)): 95-97.
  • Success Stories in Africa's Drylands: Supporting Advocates and Answering Skeptics. Amsterdam, CIS/Centre for International Cooperation, 2003.
  • Tiffen, M. Guidelines for the incorporation of health safeguards into irrigation projects through intersectoral cooperation. Geneva, PEEM Secretariat, World Health Organization, 1991.
  • Wright, J, Gundry, S & Conroy, R. Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2004; 9 (1): 106-117.
  • Pinstrup-Andersen, P, Burger, S, Habicht, J-P & Peterson, K. Protein-Energy Malnutrition. In: Jamison, D.T., Mosley, W.H. et al., eds. Disease control priorities in developing countries. New York, Oxford University Press for the World Bank, 1993, pp. 391-420.
Share