Directory of resources on transport, health and environment in developing countries


Transport - hazards and health impacts: air and noise, traffic injury, physical inactivity, equity and quality of life

Air and noise pollution

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    Air Impacts.org. A search engine and internet portal led by the UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC), in partnership with the World Bank, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), and research institutions. Addresses health and economic impacts of air pollution, including climate change, in both developing and developed countries. Denmark.
    http://www.airimpacts.org
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    Begum B et al. Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and semi-urban areas in Bangladesh. Atmospheric Environment, 2004, 38:3025–3038.
    http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-59755.html (abstract only).
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    Begum B et al. Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at a hot spot in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 2005, 55(2):227–240. (abstract).
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15796113&query_hl=1
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    Bose RK. Transportation, energy use and emissions in Indian cities: issues and strategies. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Policy Integration towards Sustainable Energy Use for Asian Cities: Integrating Local Air Pollution and GHG Emissions Concerns, Hayama, Japan, 2004.
    http://www.iges.or.jp/kitakyushu/megacity_workshop/bose.pdf
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    Carbon monoxide 2nd ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (Environmental Health Criteria, No. 213).
    http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/ehc/en/ehc_213_part_1.pdf
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    Cicero-Fernandez P et al. Evaluation of human exposure to ambient PM10 in the metropolitan area of Mexico City using a GIS-based methodology. Journal of Air & Waste Management Association, 2001, 51:1586–1593.
    http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/10530283300100205-1.pdf
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    Cohen A, Anderson HR, Ostro B. Urban air pollution. In: Mazzati M et al. Comparative quantification of health risks, global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004:1353–1434.
    http://www.who.int/publications/cra/chapters/volume2/1353-1434.pdf
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    Energy Use for Asian Cities: Integrating Local Air Pollution and GHG Emissions Concerns, Hayama, Japan, 2004.
    http://www.iges.or.jp/kitakyushu/megacity_workshop/bose.pdf
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    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Towards cleaner urban air in South Asia. Tackling transport pollution, understanding sources. Washington, DC, UNDP/World Bank, 2004 (ESMAP Report 281/04).
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDS_IBank_Servlet?pcont=details&eid=000090341_20040721111528
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    Ginsberg G et al. Mortality from vehicular emissions in Tel Aviv-Jafo. Journal of World Transport Policy & Practice, 1998, 4(2):27–31.
    http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/WTPPdownloads.html
    http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/wtpp04.2.pdf
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    Guidelines for community noise. Berglund B, Lindwell T, Schwela DH, eds. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999.
    http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1999/a68672.pdf
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    Guo J et al. Risk of esophageal, ovarian, testicular, kidney and bladder cancers and leukemia among Finnish workers exposed to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. International Journal of Cancer, 111(2):286–292.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15197784&dopt=Abstract (abstract only).
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    Guttikunda S, Johnson T. Source apportionment of urban air pollution in Asia and Latin America. Presented at Better Air Quality Conference, Agra, India, 6–8 December, 2004. Washington, DC, World Bank, Environment Department, 2004.
    http://www.cleanairnet.org/baq2004/1527/article-59121.html
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    Gwilliam K, Kojima M, Johnson T. Reducing air pollution from urban transport. Washington, DC, World Bank, 2004.
    http://www.cleanairnet.org/cai/1403/article-56396.html
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    Haq G et al. Benchmarking report on Mumbai. In: Benchmarking urban air quality management and practice in major and mega cities of Asia, Stage 1. Seoul, Air Pollution in the Megacities of Asia (APMA) Project and Korea Environment Institute, 2002:46–49.
    http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-47960.html
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    Health aspects of air pollution: results from the WHO project "systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe." Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, (EUR/04/5046026) 2004.
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/E83080.pdf
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    Health effects and risks of transport systems: the hearts project. Copenhagen, WHO regional office for Europe, World Health Organization, 2006.
    http://www.euro.who.int/hearts/20060620_2
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    Health effects of outdoor air pollution in developing countries of Asia; a literature review. Boston, Health Effects Institute, 2004.
    http://www.healtheffects.org/Pubs/SpecialReport15.pdf
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    Health effects and risk of transport systems (HEARTS) . Rome, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Tools for modelling the health impacts of exposures to transport-generated pollution.
    http://www.euro.who.int/eprise/main/WHO/Progs/HTS
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    Kan H et al. An evaluation of public health impact of ambient air pollution under various energy scenarios in Shanghai, China. Atmospheric Environment, 2004, 38:95–102.
    http://www.cleanairnet.org/lac_en/1415/articles-60042_resource_1.pdf
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    Kryzanowski M, Kuna-Dibbert B, Schneider J, eds. Health effects of transport-related air pollution. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, 2005.
    http://www.euro.who.int/InformationSources/Publications/Catalogue/20050601_1
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    Martuzzi M et al. Health impact assessment of air pollution in the eight major Italian cities. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2002.
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/e75492.pdf
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    Ostro B. Outdoor air pollution: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004 (Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 5).
    http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/ebd5/en/
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    Particulate matter air pollution: how it harms health. Berlin/Copenhagen/Rome, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2005 (Fact Sheet EURO/04/05).
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/mediacentre/fs0405e.pdf
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    PEP Clearing House – Transport, health and the environment: the Pan-European Programme. Case studies and overview of Transport-related health impacts, including air pollution and noise, traffic injury, landscapes and environment, and physical inactivity. Sponsored by the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP) of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
    http://www.thepep.org/CHWebSite/
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    PEP Clearing House – Transport, health and the environment: the Pan-European Programme. Transport-related health impacts, including air pollution. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
    http://www.thepep.org/CHWebSite/
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    Pope CA et al. Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. Circulation, 2004,109(1):71–77.
    http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/109/1/71?ijkey=Kks.Je9UEBLAU&keytype=ref&siteid=ahajournals
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    Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia—Science Access on the Net. Compendium of web-accessible studies of air pollution and health conducted across Asia between 1980 and 2005, and systematically compiled from peer-reviewed scientific literature. Updates 2004 HEI systematic review: Health effects of outdoor air pollution in developing countries of Asia. Boston, Health Effects Institute, 2006. http://www.healtheffects.org/Asia/papasan-home.htm
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    Quantifying selected major risks to health, urban air pollution. In: The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002:68.
    http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/
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    Racioppi F et al. An integrated environmental health impact assessment of two-stroke engine mopeds. Rome, World Health Organization, European Centre for Environment and Health, 1999.
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/trt/posterISEE99.pdf
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    Stansfeld S et al. West London schools study: aircraft noise at school and children's cognitive performance and stress responses. London, United Kingdom Department of Health and the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 2001.
    http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/05/05/58/04050558.pdf
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    van der Zee SC et al. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health of 50–70 yr old adults. European Respiratory Journal, 2000, 15:700–709.
    http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/reprint/15/4/700
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    Zhongan M et al. Traffic and urban air pollution, the case of Xi'an city, People’s Republic of China. Presented at meeting on Transport planning, demand management and air quality, 26–27 February 2001, Manila, Philippines. Manila, Asian Development Bank (document 15c) (accessed online July 2005).
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2002/RETA5937/Manila/downloads/tp_15C_maozhongan.PDF

Traffic injury

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    Accidents and injuries. Geneva, World Health Organization, Healthy Environments for Children (Issue Brief Series)
    http://www.who.int/heca/infomaterials/injuries.pdf
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    Afukaar FK. Speed control in developing countries: issues, challenges, and opportunities in reducing road traffic injuries. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2003, 10(1–2):77–81.
    http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/traffic/papers/speed_control.pdf
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    Forjuoh SN. Traffic-related injury prevention interventions for low-income countries. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2003, 10(1–2):109–118.
    http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/traffic/papers/Interventions.pdf
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    How can injuries in children and older people be prevented? Copenhagen, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Health Evidence Network (HEN), 2004.
    http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E84938.pdf
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    Jacobs GD, Aeron-Thomas A. A review of global road accident fatalities. UK Department for International Development (DFID), Transport for Development, 2000.
    http://www.transport-links.org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_771_Pa3568.pdf
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    Jacobs G, Aeron-Thomas A. Africa road safety review: final report. Prepared for the United States Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration. Berkshire, United Kingdom, TRL Limited, 2000.
    http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/traffic/papers/AfricaRoadSafetyReview2000.pdf
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    Mock C et al. Injury prevention counselling to improve safety practices by parents in Mexico. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2003, 81(8):591–598.
    http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/81/8/en/Mock0803.pdf
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    Mohan D. Social cost of road traffic crashes in India. Proceedings of the 1st Safe Community Conference on Cost of Injuries, Viborg, Denmark, 2002. Indian Institute of Technology/Transport Research and Injury Prevention Program (TRIPP). Delhi, India.
    http://www.iitd.ac.in/tripp/publications/paper/safety/dnmrk01.PDF
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    Mohan D. The road ahead: traffic injuries and fatalities in India. World Health Day, 14 April 2004, New Delhi. New Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology, Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, 2004. http://www.iitd.ac.in/tripp/publications/paper/safety/road_ahead.pdf
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    Nantulya VM, Feich MR. The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries. British Medical Journal, 2002, 324 (7346):1139–1141.
    http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/324/7346/1139
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    Nantulya VM, Reich MR. Equity dimensions of road traffic injuries in low- and middle-income countries. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2003, 10(1–2):13–20.
    http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/traffic/papers/equity_dimensions.pdf
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    Nantulya VM et al. The global challenge of road traffic injuries: can we achieve equity in safety? Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2003, 10(1–2):3–7.
    http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/traffic/papers/ic101_intro.pdf
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    Peden M et al., eds. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.
    http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241562609.pdf
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    PEP Clearing House – Transport, health and the environment: the Pan-European Programme. Case studies and overview of Transport-related health impacts, including traffic injury. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
    http://www.thepep.org/CHWebSite/
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    Racioppi F et al. Preventing road traffic injury: a public health perspective for Europe. Copenhagen, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2004.
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/E82659.pdf
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    Road traffic hazards: hidden epidemics. In: The world health report 2003: shaping the future. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003:95–99.
    http://whqlibdoc.who.int/whr/2003/9241562439.pdf
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    Road traffic injuries in the WHO European Region: the population groups and countries most affected. Copenhagen/Rome, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2004. (Fact Sheet EURO/03/04).
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/mediacentre/FS0304E.pdf
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    Vulnerable road users in the Asian and Pacific Region. Manila, Asian Development Bank.
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Road-Safety-Guidelines/vulnerable-road-users.pdf
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    Wittink R. Planning for cycling and walking as a catalyst for a successful road safety policy for all users. Utrecht, the Netherlands, I-ce Interface for Cycling Expertise (accessed online July 2005).
    http://www.i-ce.info/download/cycling_and_road_safety.pdf

Physical inactivity

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    Brownson RC et al. Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 2001, 91(12):1995–2003.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11726382
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    Ewing R. Can the physical environment determine physical activity levels? Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 2005, 33(2):69–75.
    http://www.smartgrowth.umd.edu/research/pdf/Ewing_PhysicalEnvActivity_041905.pdf
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    Ewing R et al. Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. American Journal of Health Promotion, 2003, 18(1):47–57.
    http://www.activelivingbydesign.org/fileadmin/template/documents/killingsworthpubs/Ewing_AJHP_2003.pdf
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    Frank LD, Andersen MA, Schmid TL. Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2004, 27(2):87–96.
    http://www.ajpm-online.net/article/PIIS074937970400087X/fulltext
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    Frank LD et al. Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form. Findings from SMARTRAQ. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2005, 28(2) (Suppl. 2):117–125.
    http://www.ajpm-online.net/article/PIIS0749379704003253/fulltext
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    Hill J, Wyatt HR, Peters J. Modifying the environment to reverse obesity. In: Goehl TJ, ed. Essays on the future of environmental health research. Research Triangle Park, NC, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2005:108–115.
    http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/7812/7812.html
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    Kelly-Schwartz AC et al. Is sprawl unhealthy? A multilevel analysis of the relationship of metropolitan sprawl to the health of individuals. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2004, 24:184–196.
    http://www.uoregon.edu/~schlossb/articles/schwartz_sprawl_jper.pdf
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    Kenworthy J. The death of the walking city: killing the rights of pedestrians. Perth, Australia, Government of Western Australia, Department of Planning and Infrastructure (accessed online June 2005).
    http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/walking/pdfs/deathofcity.PDF
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    PEP Clearing House – Transport, health and the environment: the Pan-European Programme. Transport-related health impacts, including physical inactivity. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
    http://www.thepep.org/CHWebSite/
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    Physical activity. Facts. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.
    http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/media/en/gsfs_pa.pdf
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    Quantifying selected major risks to health: obesity and physical inactivity. In: The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002:60–61.
    http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/
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    Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Annals of Behavioural Medicine, 2003, 25(2):80–91 (abstract only).
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12704009
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    Saris WHM et al. How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and consensus statement. Obesity Reviews, 2003, 4(2):101.
    http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1467-789X.2003.00101.x?cookieSet=1 (abstract only).
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    Sedentary lifestyle: a global public health problem. Geneva, World Health Organization, Move for Health (accessed online July 2005).
    http://www.who.int/moveforhealth/advocacy/information_sheets/sedentary/en/index.html
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    Wakefield J. Fighting obesity through the built environment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2004, 112(11):A616–A618.
    http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2004/112-11/niehsnews.html#figh

Access, equity and quality of life

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    A physically active life through everyday transport with a special focus on children and older people and examples and approaches from Europe. Copenhagen, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2002 (EUR/02/504080).
    http://www.euro.who.int/document/e75662.pdf
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    Barter P. Linkages between transport and housing for the urban poor: policy implications and alternatives. Nairobi, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), 2001.
    http://www.unhabitat.org/programmes/urbantransport/documents/TranspHousing.pdf
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    Barter P, Raad T. Taking steps: a community action guide to people-centred, equitable and sustainable urban transport. Jakarta, Sustainable Transport Action Network for Asia and the Pacific (the SUSTRAN Network), 2000.
    http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Canopy/2853/actionguide/Outline.htm
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    Bicyclevictoria. Bicyclevictoria is a self-funded community organization focused on promoting cycling in Australia. http://www.bv.com.au/index.php. Documents on the health benefits of cycling can be found at
    http://www.bv.com.au/inform.php?a=7&b=176&c=461 and
    http://www.bv.com.au/file/Health%20benefits%20of%20cycling.pdf
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    Crosignani P et al. Childhood leukemia and road traffic: a population-based case–control study. International Journal of Cancer, 2004, 108(4):596–599 (abstract only).
    http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/106563372/ABSTRACT
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    Fletcher E. Road transport, environment and social equity in Israel in the new millennium. Journal of World Transport Policy & Practice, 1999, 5(4):8–18.
    http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/WTPPdownloads.html
    http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/wtpp05.4.pdf
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    Getting serious about play: a review of children’s play. United Kingdom, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2004.
    http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/21762951-E07E-4439-8BA3-04C6ECE510A3/0/ReviewofChildrensPlay2.pdf
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    Hook W. Appraising the social costs and benefits of road projects. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, New York City.
    http://www.itdp.org/read/Social%20Benefits.pdf
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    Khan M. Urban public transport and sustainable livelihoods for the poor: a case study – Karachi, Pakistan. London, UK Department for International Development (DFID).
    http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/drivers_urb_change/urb_infrastructure/pdf_transport/DFID_Sohail_Khan%20_Transport_%20Poor_Karachi.pdf
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    Littman T. Evaluating transportation equity. World Transport Policy & Practice. 2002, 8(2):50–65.
    http://ecoplan.org/library/wt8-2.pdf
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    Lucas K, Grosvenor T, Simpson R. Transport, the environment and social exclusion. York, United Kingdom, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2001.
    http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/1859352936.pdf
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    Maoh H, Isaac J. The status of transportation in the West Bank. Journal of World Transport Policy & Practice, 1999, 5(4):18–30.
    http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/WTPPdownloads.html
    http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/wtpp05.4.pdf (
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    Mohan D. Social cost of road traffic crashes in India. Proceedings of the 1st Safe Community Conference on Cost of Injuries, Viborg, Denmark, 2002. Indian Institute of Technology/Transport Research and Injury Prevention Program (TRIPP). Delhi, India.
    http://www.iitd.ac.in/tripp/publications/paper/safety/dnmrk01.PDF
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    O’Neill et al. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2003, 111(16):1861–1870.
    http://www.cleanairnet.org/lac_en/1415/articles-60033_resource_1.pdf
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    PEP Clearing House – Transport, health and the environment: the Pan-European Programme. Case studies and overview of Transport-related health impacts; landscapes and environment. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
    http://www.thepep.org/CHWebSite/
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    Rodrigue J-P et al. Transport geography on the Web. Introduction to links between transport, environment and land use. Hofstra University, Department of Economics and Geography, 2004.
    http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans
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    Transport. Issues in transport and development in rural and eastern Africa. Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), Rugby, UK.
    http://www.itdg.org/?id=region_east_africa_transport
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    Transport and poverty reduction. Web site devoted to the relationship between transport and poverty, including sub-links to sites on transport and gender, slums, and rural communities.. . Washington, DC, World Bank.
    http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/transport/pov&tra.htm
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    Transport – Links: inclusion of social benefits in transport planning. This web page has links to over twenty documents discussing the importance of including assessment of social benefits in transport planning. London, Department for International Development.
    http://www.transport-links.org/transport_links/projects/projects_document_page.asp?projectid=322
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