Reference articles

Antiretroviral therapy for HIV prevention consultation

ART for HIV prevention | Consultation | References

Here are some of the selected references for the 'ART for HIV prevention consultation.' We understand that these are by no means comprehensive and are hopeful that concerned meeting participants and others will contribute to this repository. If you would like to add a document, please email it in PDF form to Reuben Granich at Thank you very much for your interest and we hope that these articles are helpful for you in your future work on this important issue.

1. Allen S, Tice J, Van de Perre P, et al. Effect of serotesting with counselling on condom use and seroconversion among HIV discordant couples in Africa. BMJ 1992;304(6842):1605-9.

2. Assefa Y, Lera M. Universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy: Correspondence Lancet 2009 (373) 1080.

3. Attia S et al. Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis AIDS 2009, 23:1397–1404.

4. Auvert B, Males S, Puren A, Taljaard D, Carae M, Williams B. Can Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Reduce the Spread of HIV? A Study in a Township of South Africa J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 1(36) 613-21.

5.Bacaer N, Ouiki R, Pretorius C, Wood R, Williams B. Modeling the joint epidemics of TB and HIV in a South African township. J Math Biol 57(2008):557-93

6. Baggaley RF, Garnett GP, Ferguson NM. Modelling the impact of antiretroviral use in resource-poor settings. PLoS Med 2006;3(4):e124.

7. Bakari JP, McKenna S, Myrick A, Mwinga K, Bhat GJ, Allen S. Rapid voluntary testing and counseling for HIV. Acceptability and feasibility in Zambian antenatal care clinics. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;918:64-76.

8. Bennett DE, Myatt M, Bertagnolio S, Sutherland D, Gilks CF. Recommendations for surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in countries scaling up antiretroviral treatment. Antiviral Therapy 2008;13 Suppl 2:25-36.

9. Blower SM, Aschenbach AN, Gershengorn HB, Kahn JO. Predicting the unpredictable: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Nature Medicine 2001;9(7):1016-20.

10. Blower SM, Bodine E, Kahnb J, McFarland W. The antiretroviral rollout and drug-resistant HIV in Africa: insights from empirical data and theoretical models. AIDS 2005, 19:1–14.

11. Blower SM, Chou T. Modeling the emergence of the ‘hot zones’: tuberculosis and the amplification dynamics of drug resistance. Nature Medicine 2004, doi:10.1038/nm1102.

12. Blower SM, Farmer P. Predicting the public health impact of antiretrovirals: preventing HIV in developing countries. AIDScience 2003; 11(3).

13. Blower SM, Gershengorn HB, Grant RM. A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco. Science 2000;287(5453):650-4.

14. Blower SM, Ma L, Farmer P, Koenig S. Predicting the impact of antiretrovirals in resource-poor settings: preventing HIV infections whilst controlling drug resistance. Current Drug Targets – Infectious Disorders 2003, 3, 345-353.

15. Blower SM, Small PM, Hopewell PC. Control Strategies for Tuberculosis Epidemics: New Models for Old Problems. Science 1996;273(5453):497-500.

16. Bunnell R, Cherutich P. Universal HIV testing and counselling in Africa: Comment Lancet 2008, (371) 2148-50.

17. Bunnell R, Ekwaru JP, Solberg P, et al. Changes in sexual behavior and risk of HIV transmission after antiretroviral therapy and prevention interventions in rural Uganda. AIDS 2006;20(1):85-92.

18. Bunnell R, Mermin J, De Cock KM. HIV prevention for a threatened continent: implementing positive prevention in Africa. JAMA 2006;296(7):855-8.

19. Coates TJ, Richter L, Caceres C. HIV Prevention 3. Behavioural strategies to reduce HIV transmission: how to make them work better. Lancet 2008; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60886-7

20. Cohen J. HIV/AIDS. The great funding surge. Science 2008;321(5888):512-9.

21. Cohen MS, Gay C, Kashuba AD, Blower S, Paxton L. Narrative review: antiretroviral therapy to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. Ann Intern Med 2007;146(8):591-601.

22. Cohen MS, Kaleebu P, Coates T. Prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV-1: preparing for success Journal of the International AIDS Society 2008, 11:4 doi:10.1186/1758-2652-11-4.

23. Cohen MS, Mastro TD, Cates Jr W. Universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy: Correspondence Lancet 2009 (373) 1077.

24. Cohen MS, Pilcher CD. Amplified HIV Transmission and New Approaches to HIV Prevention JID 2005:191, 1391-3.

25. Colindres P, Mermin J, Ezati E, et al. Utilization of a basic care and prevention package by HIV-infected persons in Uganda. AIDS Care 2008;20(2):139-45.

26. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D. The Growing Burden of Tuberculosis: Global Trends and Interactions With the HIV Epidemic ARCH INTERN MED 2003 (163).

27. Corbett EL, Marston B, Churchyard GJ, De Cock KM. Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, challenges, and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment. Lancet 2006;367(9514):926-37.

28. Currie CSM, Williams BG, Cheng RCH, Dye C. Tuberculosis epidemics driven by HIV: is prevention better than cure? AIDS 2003, 17:2501–2508.

29. De Cock KM, Gilks CF, Lo YR, Guerma T. Can antiretroviral therapy eliminate HIV transmission? Lancet 2009;373(9657):7-9.

30. De Cock KM, De Lay P. HIV/AIDS estimates and the quest for universal access: Comment Lancet 2008 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60732-1

31. Dieffenbach CW, Fauci AS. Universal voluntary testing and treatment for prevention of HIV transmission . JAMA 2009;301(22):2380-2382 (doi:10.1001/jama.2009.828)

32. Dunkle KL, Stephenson R, Karita E, et al. New heterosexually transmitted HIV infections in married or cohabiting couples in urban Zambia and Rwanda: an analysis of survey and clinical data. Lancet 2008;371(9631):2183-91.

33. Epstein H. Universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy: Commentary Lancet

34. Fang C, Hsu H, Twu S, Chen M, Chang Y, Hwang J, Wang J, Chuang C. Decreased HIV Transmission after a Policy of Providing Free Access to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Taiwan JID 2004:190 (1) 879-85.

35. Fauci AS. 25 years of HIV. Nature 2008;453(7193):289-90.

36. Frieden TR, Das-Douglas M, Kellerman SE, Henning KJ. Applying Public Health Principles to the HIV Epidemic. n engl j med 2005 353;22 2397-402.

37. Galvao J. Brazil and access to HIV/AIDS drugs: a question of human rights and public health. Am J Public Health 2005;95(7):1110-6.

38. Garnett GP, Gazzard B. Risk of HIV transmission in discordant couples: Comment Lancet 2008 (372) 270-1.

39. Genberg BL, Kulich M, Kawichai S, Modiba P, Chingono A, Kilonzo GP, Richter L, Pettifor A, Sweat M, Celentano DD. HIV Risk Behaviors in Sub-Saharan Africa and Northern Thailand: Baseline Behavioral Data From Project Accept. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 2008; 3(49):309-19.

40. Gilks CF, Crowley S, Ekpini R, et al. The WHO public-health approach to antiretroviral treatment against HIV in resource-limited settings. Lancet 2006;368(9534):505-10.

41. Gisselquist D, Potterat JJ. Questioning Wawer et al.’s Estimated Rate of Sexual HIV Transmission from Persons with Early HIV Infections: Correspondence JID 2005:192. 1497-8.

42. Goldie SJ, Yazdanpanah Y, Losina E, Weinstein MC, Anglaret X, Walensky RP, Hsu HE, Kimmel A, Holmes C, Kaplan JE, Freedberg KA. Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Treatment in Resource-Poor Settings — The Case of Côte d’Ivoire N Engl J Med 2006;355:1141-53.

43. Granich RM, Gilks CF, Dye C, De Cock KM, Williams BG. Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: a mathematical model. Lancet 2009;373(9657):48-57.

44. Gray RH, Li X, Wawera MJ, Gangeb SJ, Serwaddac D, Sewankambod NK, Mooree R, Wabwire-Mangenc F, Lutalof T, Quinng TC. Stochastic simulation of the impact of antiretroviral therapy and HIV vaccines on HIV transmission; Rakai, Uganda AIDS 2003, 17:1941–1951.

45. Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Brookmeyer R, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Lutalo T, Li X, vanCott T, Quinn TC. Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85(7):550-4.

46. Greco DB, Simao M. Brazilian policy of universal access to AIDS treatment: sustainability challenges and perspectives. Aids 2007;21 Suppl 4:S37-45.

47. Gruskin S, Tarantola D. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans. Aids 2008;22 Suppl 2:S123-32.

48. Harries AD, Hargreaves NJ, Chimzizi R, Salaniponi FM. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis control in Africa: synergies and potential Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2002;80:464-469.

49. Havlir DV, Getahun H, Sanne I, et al. Opportunities and Challenges for HIV Care in Overlapping HIV and TB Epidemics JAMA. 2008;300(4):423-430 (doi:10.1001/jama.300.4.423)

50. Hirsch MS. Initiating therapy: when to start, what to use. J Infect Dis 2008;197 Suppl 3:S252-60.

51. Hirschhorn L, Skolnik R. Making Universal Access a Reality—What More Do We Need to Know? JID 2008;197:1223-5.

52. Hollingsworth TD, Anderson RM, Fraser C. HIV-1 Transmission, by Stage of Infection JID 2008:198 (1) 687-93.

53. Jaffe H, Smith A, Hope T. Universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy: Correspondence Lancet 2009 (373) 1077.

53. Jin F et al. Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART AIDS 2010, 24:907–913.

54. Janssen RS, Holtgrave DR, Valdiserri RO, Shepherd M, Gayle HD, De Cock KM. The Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic: Prevention Strategies for Infected Individuals Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1019–1024.

55. Jones PS. On a never-ending waiting list: toward equitable access to anti-retroviral treatment? Experiences from Zambia. Health Hum Rights 2005;8(2):76-102.

56. Kennedy C, O'Reilly K, Medley A, Sweat M. The impact of HIV treatment on risk behaviour in developing countries: a systematic review. AIDS Care 2007;19(6):707-20.

57. Khumalo-Sakutukwa G, Morin SF, Fritz K, Charlebois ED, van Rooyen H, Chingono A, Modiba P, Mrumbi K, Visrutaratna S, Singh B, Sweat M, Celentano DD, Coates TJ. Project Accept (HPTN 043): A Community-Based Intervention to Reduce HIV Incidence in Populations at Risk for HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 2008; 3(49):309-19.

58. Kitahata MM, Gange SJ, Abraham AG, et al. Effect of Early versus Deferred Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV on Survival. N Engl J Med 2009.

59. Kohi TW, Makoae L, Chirwa M, et al. HIV and AIDS stigma violates human rights in five African countries. Nurs Ethics 2006;13(4):404-15.

60. Lawn SD, Harries AD, Anglarete X, Myerg L, Wood R. Early mortality among adults accessing antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa AIDS 2008, 22:1897–1908.

61. Lawn SD, Badria M, Wood R. Tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients receiving HAART: long term incidence and risk factors in a South African cohort AIDS 2005, 19:2109–2116.

62. Lima VD, Johnston K, Hogg RS, et al. Expanded access to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a potentially powerful strategy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. J Infect Dis 2008;198(1):59-67.

63. Marseille E, Dandona L, Marshall N. HIV prevention costs and program scale: data from the PANCEA project in five low and middle-income countries BMC Health Services Research 2007, 7:108 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-108.

64. May RM, Anderson RM. The transmission dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1988;321(1207):565-607.

65. Menzies N, Abang B, Wanyenze R, et al. The costs and effectiveness of four HIV counseling and testing strategies in Uganda. Aids 2009;23(3):395-401.

66. Mills EJ, Nachega JB, Buchan I, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa and North America: a meta-analysis. Jama 2006;296(6):679-90.

67. Miranda A, Morgan M, Jamal L, Laserson K, Barreira D, Silva G, Santos J, Wells C, Paine P, Garrett D. Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Incidence of Tuberculosis: The Brazilian Experience, 1995–2001. PLoS ONE 2(9): e826. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000826.

68. Montaner JS, Hogg R, Wood E, et al. The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet 2006;368(9534):531-6.

69. Paltiel D, Weinstein MC, Kimmel AD, Seage III GR, Losina E, Zhang H, Freedberg KA, Walensky RP. Expanded Screening for HIV in the United States - An Analysis of Cost-Effectiveness N Engl J Med 2005;352:586-95.

70. Pinkerton SD. Probability of HIV Transmission During Acute Infection in Rakai, Uganda AIDS Behav (2008) 12:677–684 DOI 10.1007/s10461-007-9329-1.

71. Plate DK. Evaluation and implementation of rapid HIV tests: the experience in 11 African countries. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007;23(12):1491-8.

72. Rapatski BL, Suppe F, Yorke JA. Reconciling Different Infectivity Estimates for HIV-1 J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006 3(43) 253-6.

73. Sabin CA, Phillips AN. Should HIV therapy be started at a CD4 cell count above 350 cells/μl in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2009 2(22) 191-7.

74 Sax, Paul E., Baden, Lindsey R. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy -- Ready When You Are? N Engl J Med 2009 0: NEJMe0902713

75. Sterne J. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-free HIV-1-infected patients: a collaborative analysis of 18 HIV cohort studies Lancet 2009 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60612-7.

76. Stringer JSA, Zulu I, Levy J, Stringer EM, Albert Mwango A, Chi BH, Mtonga V, Reid S, Cantrell RA, Bulterys M, Saag MS, Marlink RG, Alwyn Mwinga, Ellerbrock TV, Sinkala M. Rapid Scale-up of Antiretroviral Therapy at Primary Care Sites in Zambia. Feasibility and Early Outcomes JAMA. 2006;296(7):782-793 (doi:10.1001/jama.296.7.782)

77. Velasco-Hernandez JX, Gershengorn HB, Blower SM. Could widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy eradicate HIV epidemics? Lancet Infect Dis 2002;2(8):487-93.

78. Walensky RP, Wood R, Weinstein MC, et al. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: the impact of speed on survival. J Infect Dis 2008;197(9):1324-32.

79. Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Li X, Laeyendecker O, Kiwanuka N, Kigozi G, Kiddugavu M, Lutalo T, Nalugoda F, Wabwire-Mangen F, Meehan MP, Quinn TC. Rates of HIV-1 Transmission per Coital Act, by Stage of HIV-1 Infection, in Rakai, Uganda JID 2005:191 (1 May) 1403-9.

80. Weidle PJ, Wamai N, Solberg P, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a home-based AIDS care programme in rural Uganda. Lancet 2006;368(9547):1587-94.

81. Weiss RA. Special anniversary review: twenty-five years of human immunodeficiency virus research: successes and challenges. Clin Exp Immunol 2008;152(2):201-10.

82. Were W, Mermin J, Bunnell R, Ekwaru JP, Kaharuza F. Home-based model for HIV voluntary counselling and testing: Correspondence Lancet 2003: (361), 1569.

83. Were WA, Mermin JH, Wamai N, Awor AC, Bechange S, Moss S, Solberg P, Downing RG, Coutinho A, Bunnell RE. Undiagnosed HIV Infection and Couple HIV Discordance Among Household Members of HIV-Infected People Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85(7):550-4.

84. Williams BG, Dye C. Antiretroviral Drugs for Tuberculosis Control in the Era of HIV/AIDS Science 2003, 9 12(301) 1535-7.

85. Williams BG, Lloyd-Smith JO, Gouws E, et al. The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med 2006;3(7):e262.

86. Wilson DP. Data are lacking for quantifying HIV transmission risk in the presence of effective antiretroviral therapy AIDS 2009, 23:1431–1433.

87. Wilson DP, Blower SM. Designing Equitable Antiretroviral Allocation Strategies in Resource-Constrained Countries. PLoS Medicine 2005;2(1):e50.

88. Wilson DP, Blower SM. How far will we need to go to reach HIV-infected people in rural South Africa?. BMC Medicine 2007, 5:16 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-5-16.

89. Wilson DP et al.Importance of promoting HIV testing for preventing secondary transmissions: modelling the Australian HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men Sexual Health, 2009, 6, 19–33.

90. Wilson DP, et al. The paradoxical effects of using antiretroviral-based microbicides to control HIV epidemics. PNAS July 15, 2008, vol. 105, no. 28, 9835–9840.

91. Wilson DP, Kahn J, Blower SM. Predicting the epidemiological impact of antiretroviral allocation strategies in KwaZulu-Natal: The effect of the urban–rural divide. PNAS 2006;103;14228-14233.

92. Wilson DP et al. Relation between HIV viral load and infectiousness: a model-based analysis Lancet 2008; 372: 314–20.

93. Wilson DP. Universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy: Correspondence Lancet 2009 (373) 1077.

94. Wood E, Braitstein P, Montaner JSG, Schechter MT, Tyndall MW, O’Shaughnessy M, Hogg RS. Extent to which low-level use of antiretroviral treatment could curb the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85(7):550-4.

95. Wood R, Lawn SD. Should the CD4 threshold for starting ART be raised? Lancet 2009 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60654-1

96. Wright RJ, Stringer JSA. Rapid Testing Strategies for HIV-1 Serodiagnosis in High-Prevalence African Settings. Am J Prev Med 2004;27(1)

97. Yu JK, Chen SC, Wang KY, et al. True outcomes for patients on antiretroviral therapy who are "lost to follow-up" in Malawi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85(7):550-4.

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