WHO global strategy for the surveillance and monitoring of HIV drug resistance 2012

Publication details

Editors: WHO
Number of pages: 24
Publication date: November 2012
Languages: English
ISBN: 978 92 4 150476 8



The document summarizes a comprehensive package of HIV drug resistance surveys that should be implemented in all countries scaling-up and maintaining populations on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The sections of the strategy include:

  • Monitoring HIV drug resistance early warning indicators
  • Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in populations prior to treatment initiation and among those receiving ART
  • Cross-sectional surveys of HIV drug resistance in adults prior to ART initiation at representative ART clinics
  • Cross-sectional surveys of acquired HIV drug resistance in adults and children on ART for more than 12 months at nationally representative ART clinics
  • Surveys of HIV drug resistance in children less than 18 months of age
  • Surveys of transmitted drug resistance in recently infected populations
  • Implementation and funding HIV drug resistance surveillance activities within national ART programmes.

Methods which might enable the use of HIV genotyping data, obtained as part of clinical care, are under development, and are therefore not included in this update of the strategy.

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