Key facts on global HIV epidemic and progress in 2010

Based on Progress report 2011: Global HIV/AIDS response

Progress in the health sector response

1. HIV treatment, care, and support

By the end of 2010, the number of people on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries had reached 6.65 million people, a more than 16-fold increase in seven years. This represents 47% coverage of those in need of ART, up from 39% at the end of 2009.

In total, 7.4 million people living with HIV are on ART globally, including those living in high-income countries.

The number of children receiving paediatric HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries has increased from 71 500 in 2005 to 456 000 in 2010. However, estimated coverage is much lower among children (23%) than among adults (51%).

ART coverage is higher among women (53%) than men (40%) globally.

The number of health facilities providing ART, an indicator of a health system's capacity to deliver treatment, rose from 18 386 in 2009 to 21 641 in 2010 in 109 reporting low- and middle-income countries, representing an 18% increase in one year.

Ten low- and middle-income countries, including three countries with generalized epidemics (Botswana, Namibia and Rwanda) and seven countries with concentrated or low-level epidemics (Cambodia, Chile, Croatia, Cuba, Guyana, Nicaragua and Slovakia) have achieved universal access, commonly understood as providing ART to at least 80% of the people who need it.

Among the 22 priority countries for eliminating mother-to-child transmission, five countries reached the goal of providing effective regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission to 80% of pregnant women living with HIV in need: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.

Eleven countries, including two with generalized epidemics (Botswana and Namibia) and nine with low-level or concentrated epidemics (Belarus, Chile, Ecuador, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay and Uzbekistan) achieve universal access to paediatric HIV treatment delivering it to over 80% of children in need.

Limited data are available on the access to ART for key populations, such as people who inject drugs, sex workers and men who have sex with men. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, people who inject drugs represent 62% of reported HIV cases but only 22% of those receiving ART.

A total of 2.1 million people with tuberculosis were tested for HIV in 2010; 488 000 (23%) were HIV-positive., 46% of people with TB rhat were founfd HIV positive are receiving ART. In 2010, an increasing number of countries adopted WHO's new guidelines on isoniazid-preventive therapy (IPT). Coverage for IPT remains low with 12% coverage reported by a subset of 50 countries that provided the total number of adults and children newly enrolled in HIV care.

2. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Progress in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has driven the recent global commitment, and global plan agreed at the UN High-Level Meeting in June 2011, to eliminate new HIV infections among children by 2015.

In 2010, 48% of pregnant women living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (716 500 of 1.49 million) received effective antiretroviral regimens excluding single dose nevirapine.

An estimated 35% of pregnant women in need living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries received an HIV test in 2010, up from 7% in 2005.

Between 2009 and 2010, coverage of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis to the estimated 1.48 million infants born to mothers living with HIV increased from 32% to 42%.

In 65 low- and middle-income countries providing data, 28% of infants were reported to have been tested for HIV within two months of their birth, versus 6% in 54 reporting countries in 2009.

3. Prevention in the health sector

More than 550 000 men were circumcised for HIV prevention in priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010.

The availability and safety of blood and blood products for transfusion remain a concern. In low-income countries with available data, only 53% of blood donations were screened in a quality-assured manner in 2008.

In 2010, there were approximately 3.2 million 15 – 24 year-old young people living with HIV. Of this 64% were women. In certain regions, prevalence levels in this group are disproportionately higher than among their male peers. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, 71% of 15 – 24 year-olds living with HIV were women and 29% were men.

4. Knowledge of HIV status

More than 95 million HIV tests were performed in 2010 in 119 low- and middle-income countries, representing an increase from 67 million tests reported in 100 countries in 2009.

The reported number of health facilities providing HIV testing and counselling services reached 131 000 in 2010 (in 119 countries), up from 30 300 in 2007 (in 78 countries).

5. Services for key populations

An analysis of data in low- and middle-income countries found that men who have sex with men are 19.3 times more likely to be living with HIV than the general population showing HIV prevalence rates up to 33%.

Coverage of harm reduction programmes for people who inject drugs remained limited in 2010. Among 107 reporting countries, 42 had needle and syringe programmes and 37 offered opioid substitution therapy.