Additional Resources For HIV Testing and Counselling

In addition to the resources indicated in the previous sections, other resources, listed below, provide important information and lessons learnt in the provision of expanded HIV testing and counselling.

Users of the toolkit are invited to recommend any resources that may be helpful, particularly ones relating to national policies, policies and guidance concerning professional standards, quality assurance, implementation and case studies. Resources are especially welcome from countries where HIV testing and counselling have been implemented for scaling up access to treatment.

HIV/AIDS Counselling, Just a Phone Call Away: 4 Case Studies of Telephone Hotline/Helpline Projects

Contains 4 case studies of telephone hotline/helpline projects. Gives a brief history of helplines and case studies from South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, the Philippines and India.

Chronic HIV Care with ARV Therapy and Prevention

These are interim guidelines released for country adaptation and use to help with the emergency scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART ) in resource-limited settings. These interim guidelines are revised periodically to reflect implementation experience and new data.

The IMA I guidelines are aimed at first-level facility health workers and lay providers in lowresource settings. These health workers and lay providers may be working in a health centre or as part of a clinical team at the district outpatient clinic. The clinical guidelines have been simplified and systematized so that they can be used by nurses, clinical aids, and other multipurpose health workers, working in good communication with a supervising MD/MO at the district clinic. The adherence, education and psychosocial support guidelines are aimed at delivery by lay providers or health workers after training in counselling skills. This module is designed to be used both as learning aid (during training) and as a job aid.

USAID Success Story: New Voluntary Counselling and Testing Sites Reach Growing Numbers

A USAID 'Success Story': a 2-page fact sheet that describes the scaling-up of VCT services in Kenya, focusing specifically on the IMPACT Project - funded by USAID and implemented by Family Health International (FHI).

HIV Voluntary Testing and Counselling: A Gateway to Prevention and Care

Five case studies related to prevention of MTCT of HIV, TB, young people, and reaching general population groups. The case studies focus on Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa.

Knowledge is Power: VCT in Uganda

Part of the UNAIDS best practice collection, this booklet describes the initiatives that the AIDS Information Centre (AIC) in Uganda has taken in terms of VCT. The lessons learned by the AIDS Information Centre (AIC) are succinctly summarized at the end of the case study.

Comfort and Hope

The report contains a collection of 6 case studies in mobilizing community care for and by people with HIV/AIDS. The countries case studies focus on Brazil, Kenya, Malaysia, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe.

HIV/AIDS NGO/CBO Support Toolkit (CD-ROM and website)

The toolkit is an electronic library of resources (also accessible on CD-ROM) about NGO/CBO support for people who are establishing, managing or studying such HIV/AIDS NGO/CBO support programmes. While the toolkit is primarily designed for those establishing or improving programmes that aim to deliver both funding and technical support to local NGOs and CBOs, many of its resources will also be of interest to organisations that provide only funding or only training. The toolkit systematically addresses a wide range of themes related to NGO/CBO support programming for example, situation assessments, monitoring and evaluation, technical support and grant provision.

UNAIDS Guide to the Strategic Planning Process for a National Response to HIV/AIDS (Response and Situation Analysis)

Response Analysis. The response analysis findings will help program planners identify successful strategies for addressing underlying social, economic, cultural, and political factors and why they are successful; reveal points at which programs are being blocked by factors such as affordability and sustainability, or which programs could benefit from more inclusive partnerships; and pinpoint programming gaps. (quoted from APDIME)

Situation Analysis. The guide is the first part of the planning guide. It uses hypothetical examples and a concise simplified framework to guide readers through the basic steps of conceptualizing, collecting, analyzing, and presenting social, economic, and cultural information that affect HIV/AIDS program planning at the national level. Users will identify the following factors: cultural mores, political factors, social and faith-based attitudes, local fraternal organizations, NGOs, governmental departments, private sector businesses, educational curriculum and practices, media representatives, and prominent individuals who can either help or harm the current HIV/AIDS situation and intervention approaches.

The Needs Assessment: Tools for Long-Term Planning

This three-page publication defines terminology, outlines the key steps for a comprehensive needs assessment process, briefly explains the different sources of data and methodologies for gathering information, and discusses the value of needs assessment in relation to program planning for a target population.

Lesotho and Swaziland: HIV/AIDS Risk Assessments at Cross-Border and Migrant Sites in Southern Africa

This report is useful for program managers and development officers interested in the Southern African region (particularly Lesotho and Swaziland), and for program managers conducting assessments. The report contains excellent examples of reporting and the use of multiple assessment methods.

A Pilot Study of a Rapid Assessment Method to Identify Areas for AIDS Prevention in Cape Town, South Africa

This report contains the findings of the first trial (in Cape Town, South Africa) of a rapid assessment methodology developed through the MEASURE Evaluation project for work in high transmission areas (HTAs).

Situational Assessment Cost Worksheet

This cost worksheet is a tool to assist in estimating how much the assessment of resources is likely to cost.

Building Partnerships: Sustaining and Expanding Community Action on HIV/AIDS

A policy report synthesizing the Alliance's learning of partnership work.

Pathways to Partnerships Toolkit

This toolkit focuses on how NGOs and CBOs involved in HIV/AIDS can build effective partnerships with other organisations. The Portuguese version is an adaptation by Alliance field partners in Brazil, Grupo Pela Vidda/Rio de Janeiro, Grupo Pela Vidda/Niteri and Grupo de Incentivo Vida.

The Manager's Electronic Resource Center: How to Write SMART Objectives

What SMART (Specific, Measurable, Appropriate, Realistic, Time-bound) objectives are and examples.

Survival is the First Freedom: Applying Democracy and Governance to HIV/AIDS Work

The purpose of this tool kit is to provide a collection of tools for use in applying democracy and governance approaches to HIV/AIDS work. It is intended to assist current efforts to scale up responses to the pandemic and increase access to prevention and care services through collaboration at individual, community and national levels. The tool kit is designed for use by donor organizations, civil society, government and the private sector. Ultimately, the aim is to develop a dynamic website so that users can add new tools to create an ever-expanding and up-to-date learning tool.

Cost Analysis Tool: Simplifying Cost Analysis for Managers and Staff of Health Care Services

This document demonstrates means and methods for cost analysis. It consists of a Users' Manual and three electronic worksheets. It is a guide to help managers set prices for clinic based family planning services based on service delivery costs including: staff salaries and benefits, time allocation of staff and costs of supplies.

Developing Materials on HIV/AIDS/STIs for Low-Literate Audiences

This document can be used to develop Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) activities for the promotion of VCT for low-literate audiences. It provides modes and means of advocacy and marketing, materials production and evaluation. It also includes training tools for counsellors, variety of advocacy methods and materials, a work plan and budget, as well as forms for pre-testing materials for Focus Group discussions.

A Youth-Centered Counselling Model for HIV Prevention and the Promotion of Sexual and Reproductive Health

This document offers guidelines for achieving 'Youth-Centred Counselling' in the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. Proposed by the Child/Adolescent Health Unit and the HIV/AIDS/STI Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Youth-Centred Counselling is a theory-based counselling model that emphasizes HIV/STI prevention and the promotion of sexual and reproductive health with youth. The model draws on the following theoretical frameworks: client centred counselling, the transtheoretical model (TTM), goal setting theory, motivational interviewing and strengths perspective. The guide explains the essential components of each theory and how it is applied to sexual and reproductive health counselling.

Policy for Reduction of the Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Uganda

This is a policy book for MTCT, however there is an important section on VCT policy related to MTCT in Uganda as well as the role of VCT as a whole.

Stigma and HIV/AIDS

Literature review, in the form of a fact sheet, of approximately 100 articles, looking at the relationship between stigma and HIV/AIDS.


PipeLine is a software tool that helps program managers gather critical forecasting information, ensure that products arrive on time, maintain consistent stock levels at the program or national level, and prevent stockouts. The user's guide explains how to install and use the PipeLine Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), a software tool designed to help program managers regularly monitor the status of their product pipelines and product procurement plans.

The Naz Foundation (India) Trust Guide to Teaching about Testing and Counselling

This is a manual for trainers which aims to introduce the various principles, concepts, tools and limitations of counselling. There are 5 main sections: I. The principles of counselling II. Communication and counselling skills III. Application of concepts, tools and principles IV. Limitations of a counsellor V. Special issues

Adherence and HIV/AIDS

Literature review, in the form of a fact sheet, of approximately 150 studies dealing with the behavioural aspects of adherence, with the goal of assessing the evidence on ways to improve adherence to recommended treatments for HIV.

HIV/AIDS Voluntary Counselling and Testing: Review of Policies, Programmes and Guidelines in East, Central and Southern Africa

CRHCS commissioned a review of policies, programmes and guidelines in VCT as part of its strategy to harmonize and improve them and to promote the best practices for managing HIV/AIDS and STIs in ECSA. The review team elicited written responses from national AIDS programme managers using a detailed questionnaire. They interviewed key VCT programme and administrative staff, primary stakeholders such as technical partners, donors and implementing agencies. In addition, the team conducted an intensive review of both unpublished and published literature on VCT in ECSA and visited programmes in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

AIDS Information Centre Information Pack

The information pack is an excellent advocacy and promotion packet. It includes information on the centre and what it provides as well as material for the client to read regarding HIV/AIDS and VCT.

Training of Trainers for Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing: Trainer's Manual

This programme is designed to follow completion of Part 1: Training of VCT counsellors. It is recommended that graduates of Part 1 complete at least six months of post training clinical practice before undertaking Part 2 of the training.

Project Cycle Management Handbook

The Logical Framework Approach - A Project Design and Management Tool. This is an excellent source for building logframes and how to determine OVIs (objectively verifiable indicators). Reproduced from the original English edition published on the European Union's web server 'Europa'; Copyright European Communities, 2004. Responsibility for the reproduction lies entirely with the World Health Organization.

Proceedings of the Consultative Technical Meeting on HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing

This document relates the issues and programs that surrounded VCT at the time (year 2000) and what measures should be taken in terms of improving VCT uptake. Experiences of programs primarily in Africa (specifically Kenya) were shared and integration of programs with MTCT and TB were discussed.

Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators

The Declaration of Commitment included a pledge that one day every year should be dedicated to reviewing progress achieved. To facilitate this ongoing review process, UNAIDS and its partners have developed a set of core indicators that permit monitoring of measurable aspects of the various international and national actions, national programme outcomes, and national impact objectives envisaged in the Declaration. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide countries with technical guidance on the specification of the indicators, on the basis of their construction, and on their interpretation. These guidelines aim to maximize the validity, internal consistency and comparability across countries and over time of the indicator estimates obtained, and to ensure consistency in the types of data and methods of calculation employed.

Guidelines for Counselling Children who are Infected with HIV or Affected by HIV and AIDS

This is a training guide for counsellors who deal with testing and counselling HIV positive children. There is a strong emphasis on dealing with the various psychosocial responses as well as disclosure issues. Advice on how to communicate effectively with children (at each age and stage of development), as well as what techniques can be used to draw out a child's feelings is incorporated into the guide.