Health workforce

WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel


The Member States of the World Health Organization,

Recalling resolution WHA57.19 in which the World Health Assembly requested the Director-General to develop a voluntary code of practice on the international recruitment of health personnel in consultation with all relevant partners;

Responding to the calls of the Kampala Declaration adopted at the First Global Forum on Human Resources for Health (Kampala, 2–7 March 2008) and the G8 communiqués of 2008 and 2009 encouraging WHO to accelerate the development and adoption of a code of practice;

Conscious of the global shortage of health personnel and recognizing that an adequate and accessible health workforce is fundamental to an integrated and effective health system and for the provision of health services;

Deeply concerned that the severe shortage of health personnel, including highly educated and trained health personnel, in many Member States, constitutes a major threat to the performance of health systems and undermines the ability of these countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and other internationally agreed development goals;

Stressing that the WHO Global Gode of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel be a core component of bilateral, national, regional and global responses to the challenges of health personnel migration and health systems strengthening,


The Member States hereby agree on the following articles which are recommended as a basis for action.