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  Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety

Forum Standing Committee Working Groups

Substitution and Alternatives
Case studies, Examples and Tools

Substitution is a strategy of risk reduction through implementing solutions to prevent human and environmental exposure to certain chemical hazards while still achieving the
intended goal.

To replace harmful substances and processes with less harmful ones or with non-chemical alternatives, can be an effective strategy to reduce risks to human health and the environment.

In most cases of chemicals management there are several paths for achieving a specific goal or service which offer the possibility to choose among various alternatives according to specific criteria. These alternative solutions are not restricted to chemical-based options.

Substitution is a common and inherent process of technological development, industrial business and innovation. The ability to substitute one chemical product
should be approached on a life-cycle basis
with a consideration of the risks, costs and benefits of substitution.

Guidance for accessing case studies and examples:
Case studies and examples can be accessed using the keywords or by selecting the "ALL" option which will list the full compilation in no particular subject or topic order. Please note that the keywords are only a very general guide to the information available. For example, information on a specific substance may also be found by selecting retrieving "companies" or "industry sector" and searching the online information provided for each




Carbon tetrachloride


Chromium (vi)




Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

diethyl ether

dimethyl formamide

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