Forum Standing Committee Working Groups

Substitution and Alternatives
Case studies, Examples and Tools

Substitution is a strategy of risk reduction through implementing solutions to prevent human and environmental exposure to certain chemical hazards while still achieving the
intended goal.

To replace harmful substances and processes with less harmful ones or with non-chemical alternatives, can be an effective strategy to reduce risks to human health and the environment.

In most cases of chemicals management there are several paths for achieving a specific goal or service which offer the possibility to choose among various alternatives according to specific criteria. These alternative solutions are not restricted to chemical-based options.

Substitution is a common and inherent process of technological development, industrial business and innovation. The ability to substitute one chemical product
should be approached on a life-cycle basis
with a consideration of the risks, costs and benefits of substitution.

Guidance for accessing case studies and examples:

Case studies and examples can be accessed using the keywords (chemical or category of chemicals list or general list) or by selecting the "All" option which will list the full compilation in no particular subject or topic order. Please note that the keywords are only a very general guide to the information available. For example, information on a specific substance may also be found by selecting the keyword "companies" or "industry sector" from the general list and searching the online information provided by each site.

An option including publications and on-line tools is also available in Spanish

Publicaciones y acceso a diferentes bases de datos se encuentran disponibles en EspaƱol


The listing of information and resources is intended to provide information and guidance. The mention of specific resources or their producers does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

Suggestions of additional case studies, examples and resources for listing on the IFCS website may be submitted to the
IFCS Secretariat

Forum VI

Plenary Presentations

- Abstracts

Dakar Recommendations on Substitution and Alternatives

International Agreements concerning substitution and use of alternatives

Fourth Meeting of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee

Geneva, 14 October 2008

Chem Sec Substitution Conference

17 September 2008