Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

IPV Introduction, OPV Withdrawal and Routine Immunization Strengthening

This site provides information on objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan. It contains the rationale for and resources related to the introduction of Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine (IPV), withdrawal of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and routine immunization strengthening.

The Strategic Plan was developed in response to the May 2012 World Health Assembly which declared the completion of poliovirus eradication to be a programmatic emergency for global public health. Under this plan to achieve and sustain a polio-free world, the use of OPV must eventually be stopped worldwide, starting with OPV containing type 2 poliovirus (OPV type 2). At least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) must be introduced as a risk mitigation measure and to boost population immunity.

February 28, 2014

UNICEF awards IPV tender

UNICEF awarded a tender for IPV vaccines in February 2014, which makes sufficient quantities of affordable IPV available. A multi-faceted IPV financing strategy is ongoing and further reductions in the cost of IPV are being pursued for the medium-term (i.e. post 2018) through continued efforts to develop and license new products.

28 February, 2014

New polio vaccine
Position Paper

A new polio position paper has been issued in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, with WHO for the first time formally recommending an OPV and IPV schedule. The position paper can be found online at:

February 1, 2014

Introducing IPV – the experience in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Yogyakarta, Indonesia switched from OPV to the routine use of IPV. Education and effective training of immunization providers and public health program managers as well as the engagement of many partners contributed to their success. Education and materials that addressed health care provider and parent questions about multiple injections were also important.

Recent News

Click the links below for more information on each of the following six areas:


About the Polio Endgame Strategic Plan
Background to IPV introduction, OPV withdrawal and routine immunization strengthening.


The scientific rationale for IPV introduction
The rationale for IPV introduction, including WHO recommendations on schedule and doses, and information on multiple injections.


IPV safety, and price and presentation options
Information on IPV safety and effectiveness, price and presentation options and supply.


Resources for planning and IPV introduction
Implementation resources to support IPV introduction, including planning tools, training materials and guidance on communications.


Relevant lessons learned and successful strategies
Documentation on successful strategies and experiences in IPV and simultaneous vaccine introduction.


Online library of literature and peer-review publications
Online library of literature related to the rationale behind the Endgame Plan and call for IPV introduction

If you have any questions or need more information about IPV introduction, OPV withdrawal and routine immunization strengthening, please contact

Status updates on country planning for IPV introduction
WHO, UNICEF, and partners, are in regular dialogue with countries to support effective preparations for IPV. Click below for a summary per country of the status of planning and introductions updated monthly.