The primary objective of an immunization coverage survey is to provide a coverage estimate for selected vaccines or a set of vaccines (fully vaccinated for age) among infants, children and/or women of childbearing age, etcc. Other information, which is usually not available through routine monitoring systems, can also be obtained.
Furthermore, surveys facilitate assessing equity in immunization, by allowing disaggregating coverage by factors such as place of residence, sex, maternal education, economic status or subnational region.
The WHO vaccination coverage survey
Since the early 1990's, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidance to Member States, partners agencies and institutions on methods for measuring immunization coverage through surveys and has provided manuals and tools to conduct the EPI cluster survey. The most recent manual is the 2015 working draft of WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Survey.
WHO is preparing tools to facilitate the management, analysis, presentation and interpretation of survey. One of these tools, “Vaccination Coverage Quality Indicators (VCQI)” is set of Stata programs intended to be used by statisticians and epidemiologist to analyse survey data; and for programmers to add further modifications and additional analysis indicators. Additional information is available in the VCQI User’s Guide. A beta version of VCQI, as well as the User's Guide, can be obtained by emailing email@example.com.
Other survey types used to monitor vaccination coverage include:
- international household survey initiatives, such as UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)Program
- the Lot Quality Assurance (LQA) technique, mostly used to assess polio supplementary immunization activities (vaccination campaigns).
New WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Survey Manual
2015 Working Draft – New WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Survey Manual
WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Survey Manual - Briefing Note
Meeting to share lessons learnt from the roll-out of the 2015 WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Survey Reference Manual and to set an operational research agenda around vaccination coverage surveys - Geneva - 2017
Training for the comprehensive analysis of vaccination coverage surveys - Nepal - 2017
Rapport de la formation statistique sur les enquêtes de couverture vaccinale (ECVs) - Sénégal - 2017
Statistical Training on the 2015 WHO Vaccination Coverage Survey Reference Manual - Madrid - 2016
Briefing on WHO Tools and Guidance on Immunization Data Quality and Vaccination Coverage Survey - Istanbul - 2015
Enquêtes de couverture vaccinales par sondage en grappes: manuel de référence, 2015
Sample size calculator
- Vaccination Coverage Quality Indicators (VCQI)
- How to do a Survey: a practical cook book
2005 Immunization coverage cluster survey : reference manual
- the reference manual
Facilitator guide for EPI coverage survey
Immunization coverage cluster survey, data entry
Users' guide on how to use and adapt an excel workbook for conducting immunization coverage cluster survey
Other useful resources
- Equity in immunization: data from the Global Health Observatory
- Documenting the Impact of Hepatitis B Immunization: best practices for conducting a serosurvey
- UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS)
- The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program
- Lot Quality Assurance (LQA) in polio supplementary immunization activities
- Training for mid-level managers (MLM). Module 7: The EPI coverage survey
- TechNet vaccination coverage survey library
Last Update: 20 March 2018