Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Strategic indicators

Coverage is only one of the strategic indicators used to measure the performance of immunization systems. The monitoring of input, process and output indicators is used to draw attention to low-performing areas that need additional support or attention. The regular collection of data though routine reporting allows staff at district and national levels to take rapid corrective action


WHO recommends that areas such as:

  • planning
  • financing
  • surveillance
  • staff and management
  • social mobilization and links with the community
  • logistics (including the cold chain)
  • stock management
  • outreach activities

be monitored at district and national level

Countries are encouraged to define a minimal set of core indicators that are useful at the local level to improve immunization services, are feasible to collect, and do not overburden the district or health facility

Results and data

Countries report information on national and district level indicators through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form

Methods, materials and tools

Last Update. 20 November 2014