Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Other resources

The other resources page makes available other relevant resources, documentation, and websites of relevance to immunization financing.

Synthesis report: New vaccine adoption in lower-middle-income countries

The purpose of this study is to identify factors that play an important role in the decision-making process and outcomes for adopting new and underused vaccines in LMICs.
These factors include constraints, as well as enabling factors and notable practices.
The goal is to identify practical interventions that address the issues uncovered and to suggest concrete strategies that can be taken at the global, regional, and country levels to implement the interventions in order to positively affect new vaccine adoption in LMICs.

Debt Relief Initiatives and Immunization Financing

Forty of the poorest and most heavily indebted countries are currently eligible to benefit from debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), and some additional bilateral debt relief programmes. In 2006 a group at WHO conducted in-depth assessment of these initiatives to review the mechanisms and to evaluate whether and how immunization programs might access these funds. Findings from 11 country case studies alongside additional information about the mechanisms and characteristics of debt relief and recommendations for health and immunization authorities are now available online, as of 13 November 2009.

Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS)

In response to global immunization challenges, including the need to protect more people and introduce new vaccines, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in consultation with other partners, have developed the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for the period 2006-2015. GIVS is a framework that offers policy-makers and stakeholders a unified vision of immunization and a set of strategies from which countries can select those most suited to their specific needs. The World Health Assembly and the UNICEF Executive Board in 2005 both welcomed the GIVS as the way forward for immunization.

WHO Bulletin: Theme Issue on the Economics of Immunization

Full text

In an effort to make information more readily available on the economics of immunization a special theme issue of the WHO Bulletin was developed in coordination with the GAVI Financing Task Force. It is intended to draw together the latest research of several economists and other technical experts working in this field and across a range of academic and policy settings. Initiated at the technical workshop on The Economics of Vaccination in Low and Middle Income Countries: 29th & 30th October 2003 at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), this special issue of the WHO Bulletin reflects the current state and main trends in research and perspectives on the economics of immunization.

Economics of immunization: a guide to the literature and other resources

Within the context of immunization financing, this tool identifies literature and web resources on costing, cost–benefit analyses, financing, policy issues, tools, and other related topics. This document contains background information on immunization financing issues, summaries of 87 key articles related to immunization financing, a list of 345 documents primarily from 1995 to the present and a directory of contacts and web sites for additional information. This document is intended as a resource for donor agencies, ministries of health and finance in developing countries, public health institutions and universities, as well as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI).

State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization

This book identifies the hopes for the future, and some of the gaps that need to be bridged before the world is free from vaccine-preventable diseases. On behalf of children everywhere, the report advocates for a number of crucial steps that are needed to take the responsible world community forward to the next stage.

Related WHO web sites

Last updated: 24 November 2008

Contact us

World Health Organization (WHO)
Immunization, Vaccines & Biologicals Department (IVB)
Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
20 Avenue Appia
CH -1211, Geneva 27