Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Malaria Control

girl behind mosquito net

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in the remarkable success in reducing malaria burden over the past decade. They are a core prevention tool, and widely used by people at risk of malaria.

WHO recommends that:

  • Universal coverage remains the goal for all people at risk of malaria.
  • In order to maintain universal coverage, countries should apply a combination of mass free distributions and continuous distributions through multiple channels, in particular antenatal and immunisation services.

Mass campaigns are a cost-effective way to rapidly achieve high and equitable coverage, but coverage gaps start to appear almost immediately post-campaign through net deterioration, loss of nets, and population growth, requiring complementary continuous distribution channels.

Integrated delivery mechanisms may be by direct distribution at the time of vaccination or through vouchers given to pregnant women and/or children for subsequent exchange.

  • LLINs have been successfully integrated with many measles and polio mass vaccination campaigns.
  • LLINs have been distributed at antenatal contacts (for example with TT vaccination) and have the advantage of allowing protection of both pregnant women and children under the age of one year if the infant is sleeping with the mother.
  • LLINs have been distributed with routine immunization services, either at the first contact (BCG or DTP1/Penta1) if the mother has not previously received a LLIN, or at the measles vaccination contact (MCV1 or MCV2) which can serve as an incentive for completing the child’s full vaccination schedule.

Key resources

Continous LLIN distributions : A Guide to Concepts and Planning (Dec 2011)

Country to Country Guide for Implementers of LLIN Keep Up

A Guide for Continuous Delivery of LLINs via ANC, EPI and Other Routine Health Services (Dec 2011)