Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Procurement mechanisms and systems

Vaccine procurement process

The vaccine procurement process is a challenging and increasingly strategic endeavor. It requires the involvement of a range of stakeholders and follows a cyclical pattern. Because of the inherent complexity of vaccine procurement, the mechanisms, methods, and tools used in procurement should be selected to optimize outcomes for the country, given what’s known about the market.

Procurement cycle

Because the market environment is always changing, the vaccine procurement cycle is a continuous process that aims to achieve both long-term supply security and the procurement of high quality products at the best possible price.

  • Identify needs

    Identify the product attributes, volumes, deliveries, and timing needed to achieve the goals of the NIP.

  • Select prequalified vaccines

    Select vaccine products that meet WHO prequalification standards to minimize the risk of purchasing inferior products and/or accepting bids from unsuitable sources.

  • Select suppliers

    Prior to engaging suppliers in the contracting process, select enough suppliers to optimize competition.

  • Develop specifications

    Decide on the technical and programmatic specifications to include in the solicitation of bids.

  • Establish criteria

    Establish mandatory and flexible criteria to best suit the needs of the NIP, the individual vaccine market conditions, and the legal requirements for procurement.

  • Select a procurement method

    Establish, document, and communicate a strategy and clear procedures for bidding and evaluation.

  • Prepare for bidding and evaluation

    Issue solicitation documents to prospective selected suppliers, describing a clear and equitable process for responding to requests or questions and receiving offers.

  • Solicit and receive offers

    Identify the product attributes, volumes, deliveries, and timing needed to achieve the goals of the NIP.

  • Evaluate and adjudicate bids

    Follow a predefined evaluation procedure involving key stakeholders and use a un-biased evaluation system to present recommendations to the country decision maker.

  • Select and award

    Communicate the outcome of the evaluation and adjudication processes in a timely manner.

  • Create a contract

    Create a contract with defined mandatory terms as well as decisions on any flexible terms proposed during the bidding process.

  • Monitor and report performance

    Monitor the ability of both contractual parties to meet the terms of the agreed contract and monitor the performance of the vaccine in the NIP through appropriate regulatory and programmatic reporting channels.