Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

V3P Mechanism: Module 3 - Links to further information on vaccines

Vaccine price information

Information on vaccine prices plays an important role for countries in the forecasting, planning, costing, budgeting, and financing functions of their immunization programmes. Vaccine prices for self-procuring Low- and Middle Income Countries have been difficult to determine, with minimal information on historical prices publically available.

However, published information from an increasing number of sources is becoming available for these countries, including the prices provided by large pooled procurement mechanisms such as UNICEF Supply Division and PAHO’s Revolving Fund, as well as information on private domestic or public procurement prices published by several countries.

Understanding price information

There are a number of factors that can influence vaccine prices, including but not limited to presentation size, formulation, level of competition, product maturity, individual and specific contract terms, capacity to pay of the purchaser, and the volume procured. Self-procuring countries may also realize different prices for vaccines, depending on pricing policies enacted by individual manufacturers.

Furthermore, it is important to note that price information always needs to be understood in its relevant and particular context. Depending on the position in the supply chain (e.g. manufacturer, supplier, wholesaler, central medical store or end user level), a vaccine price will include relevant components, such as charges, fees and mark-ups.


Incoterms provide standardized definitions on the components included in a price. Published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), Incoterms are a series of three-letter trade terms related to common contractual sales practices, intended to clearly communicate the tasks, costs, and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods.

Web resources

The sources listed below provide information on vaccine prices compiled by pooled procurement mechanisms (PAHO and UNICEF) as well as individual countries. Click on the buttons to learn more.