Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Optimize resources


Cold chain technologies

Unplugged and keeping cool — testing off - grid vaccine storage solutions in Viet Nam

Keeping heat-sensitive vaccines at the right temperature is crucial yet often difficult in areas with limited or no electrical power. Project Optimize collaborated with the Vietnam National Expanded Programme on Immunization to evaluate two technologies to respond to this challenge. One was a direct-drive solar refrigerator and the other a passive cooling device. This fact sheet describes the lessons learned from the demonstration—information which can be used by other country programs considering these devices for long-term storage of vaccines.


Moving toward freeze-safe cooling options

One of the core functions of the vaccine supply chain is to keep vaccine products properly refrigerated along every step in their journey. As part of the project Optimize traveling exhibit, this banner emphasizes the importance of, and methods for, preventing accidental freezing of heat-sensitive products in vaccine carriers. The banner illustrates how different configurations of ice packs affect temperature, shows typical temperature readings of vaccine carriers containing frozen ice packs, conditioned ice packs, cool water packs, and no ice.


Innovative passive cooling options for vaccines

This project Optimize evidence brief reports results from field demonstrations of some new vaccine cold boxes that could soon be available as World Health Organization (WHO)-prequalified devices for vaccine storage and/ or transport. This information is intended for national Expanded Programme on Immunization managers and logisticians who are interested in learning about new technologies in the pipeline for use in countries in the near future.


Direct-drive solar vaccine refrigerators—a new choice for vaccine storage

This project Optimize document is directed toward supply chain managers in low-and middle-income countries and provides information about direct-drive solar refrigerators, which may be a good option for vaccine storage in areas with little or no electricity. It provides background about the technology and some practical guidance about weighing this option for specific situations.


Vietnam solar fridge photobook

This photo set contains photographs of the installation and initial testing of two TrueEnergy BLF 100DC SureChill vaccine refrigerators in Viet Nam. The refrigerators were installed in May 2011, one in Thanh Ba district, Phu Tho province and the other in Thanh Phu district, Ben Tre province.


Delivering Vaccines: A cost comparison of in-country vaccine transport container options

Project Optimize, a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization, undertook a cost comparison of five container options for vaccine transport, focusing on Senegal as a case study location. The goal was to provide insight into existing and future transport options for countries.


Ocean shipment of vaccines

In consideration of the volatile global economy, growing costs of airfreight, and the risk associated with diminished air cargo capacity, project Optimize evaluated ocean freight as a potentially secure and economic alternative method to transport vaccines.


Domestic refrigerators

This project Optimize document summarizes a laboratory report on performance testing of four models of domestic refrigerators that are available on the Tunisian market. Project Optimize contracted the tests to demonstrate to the government the importance of prequalification of models according to World Health Organization/Quality, Safety and Standards norms for the storage of vaccines.


Cool innovations for vaccine transportation and storage

Keeping heat-sensitive vaccines and other drugs at the right temperature is crucial yet often difficult in areas with limited or no electrical power. In response to this challenge, a group of public- and private-sector partners is working with project Optimize to evaluate a range of transportation and storage containers for heat-sensitive drugs and vaccines that operate in environments with or without access to reliable power.


Optimize Viet Nam Summary Report

Between 2010 and 2012, project Optimize collaborated with Viet Nam’s National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology to demonstrate innovations in the supply chain that can help to meet the demands expected as Viet Nam’s immunization program continues to grow. This report describes the activities undertaken in Viet Nam as part of the collaboration.


Harnessing solar energy for health needs

Many health facilities in remote areas operate without grid electricity, have unreliable electricity, or find that using electricity is too costly. In these settings, solar energy is a promising solution for powering the storage and transportation of vaccines and heat‐sensitive drugs at controlled temperatures. Project Optimize has been working with public and private partners on several solar technologies tailored to the following local electrical power conditions: unavailable or unreliable power, intermittent power, and reliable power.


Landscape analysis: Cool chain technologies

A series of reports prepared in July 2008 designed to inform Optimize's strategic planning and work. They provide an overview of key issues in logistics and technologies, drawing on experiences from immunization, the broader health care community and the private sector.


Integrating the supply chains of vaccines and other health commodities

This evidence brief, developed by project Optimize, examines the benefits, challenges, and rationale for integrating vaccine supply chains with the supply chains of other health commodities. It provides agencies, donors, decision-makers, and partners with a brief overview of supply chain integration and lessons learned during project Optimize’s demonstration activities in Senegal and Tunisia.

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