Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Optimize resources


Controlled temperature chain for vaccines

Delivering MenAfriVac Using the Controlled Temperature Chain Approach

In November 2012, the first immunization campaign to use a controlled temperature chain (CTC) took place in northern Benin. This photo set by project Optimize contains images taken during the campaign, where more than 155,000 people were vaccinated using the CTC approach.


First immunization campaign to use a controlled temperature chain

In November 2012, the first immunization campaign to use a controlled temperature chain (CTC) took place in Banikoara in northern Benin. This photo set contains images taken during the campaign, where over 155,000 people were vaccinated using the CTC approach.


Controled room temperature - storage of medicines

Project Optimize and the Tunisian Ministry of Public Health are collaborating to explore new logistics and supply chain solutions that can optimize the vaccine supply chain. Anticipating that the Tunisian government will soon formulate a controlled room temperature policy, project Optimize commissioned a study assessing the least-cost, most energy-efficient solution for pharmaceutical stores at the regional and district level.


Taking advantage of the true heat stability of vaccines

Project Optimize is working to enable immunization programs to take advantage of the true stability of vaccines by labeling them for use at ambient temperatures in a controlled temperature chain for limited periods of time as appropriate to the stability of the antigen.


Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) availability and use in the African, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific regions

Commissioned by project Optimize, a study of vaccine vial monitor (VVM) availability and use in developing countries in four regions was undertaken. The study had three aspects: the total proportion of vaccines with VVMs in the regions with detailed information by country, in-depth information on policies and practices, and knowledge and attitudes in a selected sample of countries.


Vaccine vial monitors: FAQs

Vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) are small stickers that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine can be safely used for immunization. This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked questions regarding VVMs.


Use of vaccines outside of the cold chain: A literature review

This project Optimize study is a compilation of the literature available on the use of vaccines outside of the cold chain. Most of the studies analyzed in this review focus on hepatitis B, with one exception—a study examining meningococcal C vaccine.



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