Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Optimize resources


Supply chain design

Green supply chains: a glimpse into the future?

This document discusses the rationale for introducing net-zero energy systems into vaccine supply chains and describes the experiences and lessons learned in a demonstration project in Tunisia. Opportunities and challenges are presented and evidence is provided for national and global readers involved in immunization supply chains who may be considering a similar intervention.


Banner: A moving warehouse in Senegal

To illustrate the concept of integrating vaccines with other health products in streamlined supply chains, this banner highlights Senegal’s “moving warehouse” which was introduced to offer a better system of distribution down the chain. Rather than having health facilities collect vaccines and supplies from higher levels of the chain, the moving warehouse travels with delivery teams that visit each facility, check stock levels, and replenish stock as needed. Each team also includes a supervisor and cold chain technician who provide supportive supervision to health care workers and ensure that equipment is operating correctly.


Integrating the supply chains of vaccines and other health commodities

This evidence brief, developed by project Optimize, examines the benefits, challenges, and rationale for integrating vaccine supply chains with the supply chains of other health commodities. It provides agencies, donors, decision-makers, and partners with a brief overview of supply chain integration and lessons learned during project Optimize’s demonstration activities in Senegal and Tunisia.


Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: A framework for decision-making

This project Optimize document provides national immunization program managers, their technical support staff, policymakers in ministries of health, and global agencies involved in vaccine and health product supply chains with a better understanding of the benefits and potential risks of integrating vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains. It can also be used as a resource to guide the alignment and coordination of various international initiatives around supply chain integration.


Senegal moving warehouse photobook

In March 2011, the Government of Senegal began using a "moving warehouse" to transport vaccines and vaccine supplies from regional stores directly to 110 district stores and health posts on a monthly basis in the Saint-Louis region. This photo set explains how the moving warehouse works and shares results from an Optimize-supported pilot demonstration of the moving warehouse from 2000 to 2012.


Improving vaccine delivery through moving warehouses

Project Optimize is collaborating with the Senegalese Ministry of Health to implement and validate a "moving warehouse" that will streamline the vaccine supply chain from the regional to the peripheral level. A moving warehouse is a truck composed of delivery teams that visit each health facility, check stock levels, and replenish stock as needed.


Assessment of the vaccine supply chain for fee-based immunization in Hanoi Capital and Ho Chi Minh City

The objective of this project Optimize assessment was to understand the structure, scope, and quality of the vaccine supply chain for fee-based immunization services and to provide recommendations for strengthening management and monitoring the quality of the vaccine supply chain for fee-based immunization.


Collaborating with countries to improve supply chains

This document describes efforts to define ideal specifications for health products and create a flexible and robust vaccine supply chain that can handle an increasingly large and costly portfolio of vaccines.


A review of the Centres for Disease Control and prevention's vaccine management business improvement project

In this document, project Optimize reviews the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project, which represents an end-to-end reengineering of the US public-sector vaccine supply chain—from vaccine budgeting through storage and distribution. The CDC’s overarching goal was to ensure that vaccine was flowing to the right places at the right time.


Senegal: Integrating and streamlining health supply chains

This document describes how project Optimize is collaborating with the Senegalese Ministry of Health to demonstrate innovations in the supply chain that can help to increase efficiency and improve performance, preparing the country for the introduction of new vaccines in the future.


Reducing the need for parallel supply chains

Project Optimize aims to provide national immunization programs with recommendations to build integrated health supply systems, including strategic linkages with the parastatal and private sector. Ultimately, integration will allow public health programs to reduce uncertainties and risks, achieve economies of scale, shorten delivery lead times, improve procurement, provide better incentives for health workers, and improve quality of service to clients.


Tunisia: Demonstrating innovative health supply chain solutions

This document describes how project Optimize and the Tunisian Ministry of Public Health are collaborating to explore new logistics and supply chain solutions that can optimize the vaccine supply chain.


Viet Nam: Demonstrating innovative health supply chain solutions

This document describes how project Optimize is collaborating with Viet Nam’s National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology to demonstrate innovations in the supply chain that can help to meet the demands of an increasingly large and costly portfolio of vaccines.

Outsourcing supply chain functions

Outsourcing the vaccine supply chain and logistics system to the private sector

Facilitated by project Optimize, this review was conducted in the Western Cape of South Africa whereby the Biovac Institute (a third-party, private-sector company) took over the roles of vaccine procurement, warehouse management, inventory management, and vaccine distribution directly to health centres.


Outsourcing vaccine supply chain and logistics to the private sector

This document provides supply chain managers in low- and middle-income countries with an overview of the potential benefits of outsourcing components of their vaccine logistics systems to the private sector. It also provides practical advice on determining whether outsourcing is a viable option.


An assessment of vaccine supply chain and logistics systems in Thailand

Health Systems Research Institute, in partnership with project Optimize, commissioned a study led by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, to better understand the vaccine supply chain system in Thailand and the challenges of implementing a streamlined vendor-managed inventory system.

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