Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Optimize resources


Vaccine and delivery technologies

Pull mechanisms for value-added technologies for vaccines: An evaluation of the issues influencing

Project Optimize commissioned this white paper to examine the issues influencing vaccine producer willingness to advance, adopt, and commercialize value-added technologies for vaccines for low-income and lower-middle-income country markets.


Breakeven analysis for various HPV vaccine presentations in Viet Nam and Uganda

The study highlighted in this project Optimize report uses a breakeven cost analysis to compare potential prices, wastage rates, and cold chain requirements for various human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine presentations.


Intradermal delivery of vaccines: A review of the literature

This report: (1) summarizes the clinical evidence supporting the intradermal route for vaccine administration and the devices being developed for this purpose; (2) determines whether intradermal delivery broadly holds promise for vaccine applications for low- and middle-income countries in the future; and (3) begins to prioritize vaccine targets and device strategies that best fit the public health needs in these countries and likely merit further investigation.


Landscape analysis: Trends in vaccine availability and novel vaccine delivery technologies: 2008–2025

This project Optimize landscape analysis identifies trends in the availability of vaccines and novel vaccine delivery technologies that are and will be of relevance to low- and middle-income countries from present through 2025.


Results from a survey of immunization stakeholders in Viet Nam regarding the presentation, packaging, and distribution of Human Papillomavirus vaccines

The purpose of this project Optimize survey was to obtain input from stakeholders within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Viet Nam about issues and perceptions related to the storage, distribution, and delivery of the current and potential options for human papillomavirus vaccine presentation and packaging.



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