Security of vaccine supply
Vaccine security, the uninterrupted supply of affordable vaccines, is now a major strategic requirement for successful immunization.
Vaccine products are diverging. This is unlikely to change in the short term. This market divergence has implications for the availability, pricing and regulation of vaccines.
Demand forecasting is very important to ensure the availability of an adequate supply of high quality vaccines. WHO will assist countries with demand forecasting for routine vaccination to help nations address supply problems and implement better national planning systems for their immunization programmes.
Emergency response vaccines have become important due to resurgent outbreaks, threatening global pandemics and situations where a global emergency immunization response may be needed. This paper examines how international public and private sector can interact with the vaccine production industry on emergency response vaccines.
This paper explores some of the major areas of change in the economics of vaccine development over the last 20 years. Issues of cost, process standarization and validation as well as clinical trials, capacity, competition and markets are examined.
Last updated 3 February 2006