Indoor air pollution

WHO Household energy database

Excel version

The information in this database reports responses to questions from nationally representative surveys on the primary cooking fuel in each household interviewed. A proportion of the available surveys also included questions on stove type, venting of smoke ('exhaust') and cooking location, and also permit cross-tabulation by educational level of the woman respondent and by wealth quintile of the household.

The use of solid fuels in households is a proxy for indoor air pollution, which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity from pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory diseases among children, as well as from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer among adults (where coal is used).

Solid fuels comprise biomass - wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, dung - and coal.

Although solid fuels are also used for heating purposes (either separately from cooking arrangements, or from the same fire/stove), the present database is a compilation of information on the main fuel used for cooking purposes only.


Following additional information is available upon request:

  • Stove exhaust location: stove type (open fire, open stove), cooking exhaust (presence of a chimney or hood), cooking location (inside/outside the house)
  • Main cooking fuel among household by education level
  • Main cooking fuel among household by wealth quintile

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