Avian and other zoonotic influenza
Animal influenza viruses are distinct from human seasonal influenza viruses and do not easily transmit between humans. However, zoonotic influenza viruses - animal influenza viruses that may occasionally infect humans through direct or indirect contact - can cause disease in humans ranging from a mild illness to death.
Birds are the natural hosts for avian influenza viruses. After an outbreak of A(H5N1) virus in 1997 in poultry in Hong Kong SAR, China, since 2003, this avian and other influenza viruses have spread from Asia to Europe and Africa. In 2013, human infections with the influenza A(H7N9) virus were reported in China.
Most swine influenza viruses do not cause disease in humans, but some countries have reported cases of human infection from certain swine influenza viruses. Close proximity to infected pigs or visiting locations where pigs are exhibited has been reported for most human cases, but some limited human-to-human transmission has occurred.
Just like birds and pigs, other animals such as horses and dogs, can be infected with their own influenza viruses (canine influenza viruses, equine influenza viruses, etc.).
- Monthly Risk Assessment Summary of Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface
- Assessment of risk associated with influenza A(H5N8) virus
- Tool for Influenza Pandemic Risk Assessment (TIPRA)
Summary of Key Information Practical to Countries Experiencing Outbreaks of A(H5N1) and Other Subtypes of Avian Influenza
Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER)
Zoonotic influenza viruses: antigenic and genetic characteristics and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic preparedness
Human cases of influenza at the human-animal interface, January 2014-April 2015