International Programme on Chemical Safety

Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors

WHO/PCS/EDC/02.2

Table of contents


  • Purpose and Scope of Document
  • Endocrine Mechanisms of Action
  • Dose-Response Relationships
  • Effects in Wildlife
  • Human Health Effects
  • Exposure
  • Causal Criteria and Weight of Evidence for Effects Resulting from Exposure to EDCs

  • General Background
  • Generic Issues
  • Mechanisms of Endocrine Disruption in Humans and Wildlife
  • Dose-Response Relationships
  • Exposure Issues

  • Introduction to Endocrine Systems
  • Scope and Terminology
  • The HPG Axis in Mammals
  • The HPA Axis
  • The HPT Axis
  • The Pineal Gland: A Photoperiodic Transducer
  • Interactions of the HPG Axis with Other Endocrine Systems
  • Growth in Understanding of Endocrine Systems
  • Developmental/Programming Effects of Endocrine Systems
  • Nonreproductive Effects of Sex Steroids
  • Endocrine Cross Talk and Endocrine Disruptors
  • Modes of Action and Phenotypic Outcomes of EDC-Related Developmental and Reproductive Toxicities
  • EDC Modes of Action for Carcinogenesis - The Effect of Atrazine
  • EDC-Related Modes of Action in Neurotoxicity
  • EDC-Related Modes of Action in Immunotoxicity
  • Basis for Attribution of Effects to Endocrine Disruption

  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Fish
  • Invertebrates
  • Uncertainties and Research Needs

  • Reproduction
  • Neurobehavior
  • Immune System
  • Cancer
  • Other Endocrine Systems Potentially Vulnerable to EDCs

  • Introduction
  • General Exposure Issues
  • Case Studies
  • Measurement of Exposure to EDCs
  • Summary

  • Introduction
  • Elements of the Proposed Framework
  • Overall Strength of Evidence
  • Illustrative Examples - Status and Trends Observations
  • Illustrative Examples - Nonstatus and Trend-Type Observations


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