International Programme on Chemical Safety

Basic Analytical Toxicology

Introduction

The issue of this document does not constitute formal publication. It should not be reviewed, abstracted, or quoted without the written permission of the Manager, International Programme on Chemical Safety, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

Basic analytical toxicology

R.J. Flanagan
Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital NHS Trust
London, England

R.A. Braithwaite
Regional Laboratory for Toxicolgy
City Hospital NHS Trust
Birmingham, England

S.S. Brown
Formerly Regional Laboratory for Toxicology
City Hospital NHS Trust
Birmingham, England

B. Widdop
Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital NHS Trust
London, England

F.A. de Wolff
Department of Human Toxicology, Academic Medical Centre
University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam, Netherlands

World Health Organization
Geneva, 1995

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization. The main objective of the IPCS is to carry out and disseminate evaluations of the effects of chemicals on human health and the quality of the environment. Supporting activities include the development of epidemiological, experimental laboratory, and risk-assessment methods that could produce internationally comparable results, and the development of manpower in the field of toxicology. Other activities carried out by the IPCS include the development of know-how for coping with chemical accidents, coordination of laboratory testing and epidemiological studies, and promotion of research on the mechanisms of the biological action of chemicals.

WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Basis analytical toxicology/R.J. Flanaga...[et al.].

1.Poisions 2.Poisons - analysis 3.Poisoning - laboratory manuals I.Flanagan, R.J.

ISBN 92 4 15448 9 (NLM Classification: QV 602)

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© World Health Organization 1995

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Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Introduction

1. Apparatus and reagents
1.1 Apparatus
1.2 Reference compounds and reagents

2. Clinical aspects of analytical toxicology
2.1 Diagnosis of acute poisoning
2.2 Treatment of acute poisoning
2.3 The role of the clinical toxicology laboratory

3. General laboratory findings in clinical toxicology
3.1 Biochemical tests
3.2 Haematological tests

4. Practical aspects of analytical toxicology
4.1 Laboratory management and practice
4.2 Colour tests
4.3 Pretreatment of samples
4.4 Thin-layer chromatography
4.5 Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry

5. Qualitative tests for poisons
5.1 Collection, storage and use of specimens
5.2 Analysis of urine, stomach contents and scene residues

6. Monographs - analytical and toxicological data
6.1 Amfetamine
6.2 Aminophenazone
6.3 Amitriptyline
6.4 Aniline
6.5 Antimony
6.6 Arsenic
6.7 Atenolol
6.8 Atropine
6.9 Barbiturates
6.10 Barium
6.11 Benzodiazepines
6.12 Bismuth
6.13 Borates
6.14 Bromates
6.15 Bromides
6.16 Cadmium
6.17 Caffeine
6.18 Camphor
6.19 Carbamate pesticides
6.20 Carbamazepine
6.21 Carbon disulfide
6.22 Carbon monoxide
6.23 Carbon tetrachloride
6.24 Chloral hydrate
6.25 Chloralose
6.26 Chlorates
6.27 Chloroform
6.28 Chlorophenoxy herbicides
6.29 Chloroquine
6.30 Cholinesterase activity
6.31 Clomethiazole
6.32 Cocaine
6.33 Codeine
6.34 Copper
6.35 Coumarin anticoagulants
6.36 Cyanide
6.37 Dapsone
6.38 Dextropropoxyphene
6.39 Dichloralphenazone
6.40 Dichloromethane
6.41 Digoxin and digitoxin
6.42 Dinitrophenol pesticides
6.43 Diphenhydramine
6.44 Diquat
6.45 Ephedrine
6.46 Ethanol
6.47 Ethchlorvynol
6.48 Ethylene glycol
6.49 Fluoride
6.50 Fluoroacetate
6.51 Formaldehyde
6.52 Formic acid and formate
6.53 Glutethimide
6.54 Glyceryl trinitrate
6.55 Haloperidol
6.56 Hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides
6.57 Hypochlorites
6.58 Imipramine
6.59 Iodates
6.60 Iodine and iodide
6.61 Iron
6.62 Isoniazid
6.63 Laxatives
6.64 Lead
6.65 Lidocaine
6.66 Lithium
6.67 Meprobamate
6.68 Mercury
6.69 Methadone
6.70 Methanol
6.71 Methaqualone
6.72 Methyl bromide
6.73 Morphine
6.74 Nicotine
6.75 Nitrates
6.76 Nitrites
6.77 Nitrobenzene
6.78 Nortriptyline
6.79 Organochlorine pesticides
6.80 Organophosphorus pesticides
6.81 Orphenadrine
6.82 Oxalates
6.83 Paracetamol
6.84 Paraquat
6.85 Pentachlorophenol
6.86 Peroxides
6.87 Pethidine
6.88 Petroleum distillates
6.89 Phenacetin
6.90 Phenols
6.91 Phenothiazines
6.92 Phenytoin
6.93 Phosphorus and phosphides
6.94 Procainamide
6.95 Propan-2-ol
6.96 Propranolol
6.97 Propylene glycol
6.98 Quinine and quinidine
6.99 Salicylic acid and derivatives
6.100 Strychnine
6.101 Sulfides
6.102 Sulfites
6.103 Tetrachloroethylene
6.104 Thallium
6.105 Theophylline
6.106 Thiocyanates
6.107 Tin
6.108 Tolbutamide
6.109 Toluene
6.110 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
6.111 Trichloroethylene
6.112 Verapamil
6.113 Zinc

Bibliography

Glossary

Annex 1. List of reference compounds and reagents

Annex 2. Conversion factors for mass and molar concentrations

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