International travel and health

Temporary Yellow Fever vaccination recommendations for International Travellers related to current situation in Brazil

31 January 2017

Several states in Brazil are experiencing an upsurge of yellow fever activity, including the occurrence of monkey and human cases associated with transmission of the virus between monkeys and mosquito species found in the forest (sylvatic transmission). These cases are being registered in areas towards the Atlantic coast that were previously not considered to be at risk for yellow fever transmission. New areas for which yellow fever vaccination is recommended for international travellers are:

Bahia State: extension of the areas at risk for yellow fever transmission with the inclusion of the following municipalities in the south and south-west of the states: Alcobasa; Belmonte; Canavieiras; Caravelas; Ilheus; Itacare; Mucuri; Nova Visosa; Porto Seguro; Prado; Santa Cruz Cabralia; Una; Urusuca; Almadina; Anage; Arataca; Barra do Chosa; Barro Preto; Belo Campo; Buerarema; Caatiba; Camacan; Candido Sales; Coaraci; CondeUba; Cordeiros; Encruzilhada; Eunapolis; Firmino Alves; Floresta Azul; Guaratinga; Ibicarai; Ibicui; Ibirapua; Itabela; Itabuna; Itagimirim; Itaju do Colonia; Itajuipe; Itamaraju; Itambe; Itanhem; Itape; Itapebi; Itapetinga; Itapitanga; Itarantim; Itororo; Jucurusu; Jussari; Lajedao; Macarani; Maiquinique; Mascote; Medeiros Neto; Nova Canaa; Pau Brasil; Piripa; Planalto; Posoes; Potiragua; Ribeirao do Largo; Santa Cruz da Vitoria; Santa Luzia; São Jose da Vitoria; Teixeira de Freitas; Tremedal; Vereda; Vitoria da Conquista.

• Espírito Santo State: at risk for yellow fever transmission with the exception of the urban area of Vitoria.

• Rio de Janeiro State: at risk for yellow fever transmission in the following northern municipalities bordering Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo states: Bom Jesus do Itabapoana; Cambuci; Cardoso Moreira; Italva; Itaperuna; Laje do Muriae; Miracema; Natividade; Porciuncula; Santo Antonio de Padua; São Fidelis; São Jose de Uba; Varre-Sai; Campos dos Goytacazes; São Francisco de Itabapoa; São João da Barra.

The determination of these new areas considered to be at risk for yellow fever transmission is preliminary. Updates will be provided regularly.

WHO advice for international travellers going to areas in Brazil with risk of yellow fever transmission and to the expanded at-risk areas listed above, includes:

  • vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days prior to the travel (note that, as per Annex 7 of the International Health Regulations (2005), a single dose of a yellow fever vaccine approved by WHO is sufficient to confer sustained immunity and life-long protection against yellow fever disease);
  • measures to avoid mosquito bites;
  • awareness of symptoms and signs of yellow fever;
  • advice to seek care in case of symptoms and signs of yellow fever while travelling and upon return from an areas at risk for yellow fever transmission.

For yellow fever vaccination requirements see International Travel and Health,
Annex 1 and country list.

Related links

WHO - International Travel and Health