Mental health

Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviours (SUPRE-MISS)

The WHO Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviours (SUPRE-MISS) was carried out in participating sites from all the six WHO regions in the early 2000s (SUPRE meaning SUicide PREvention, the WHO worldwide initiative for the prevention of suicide, with the overall objective to reduce mortality and morbidity due to suicidal behaviours). SUPRE-MISS had three components, as follows:

  • Community description: Description of basic socio-cultural characteristics of each participating site.
  • Community survey: Identification of suicidal behaviours at the community level.
  • Intervention study: Evaluation of treatment strategies for suicide attempters in a randomized controlled trial comparing Treatment as usual (TAU) to Brief intervention and contact with follow up (BIC) as an add-on to TAU.


Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A, De Leo D, Phillips MR, Botega NJ, Vijayakumar L, De Silva D, Schlebusch L, Van Tuong N, Sisask M, Bolhari J, Wasserman D. Repetition of suicide attempts: data from five culturally different low- and middle-income country emergency care settings participating in the WHO SUPRE-MISS study. Crisis. 2010. 31(4): 194-201.

Fleischmann A, Bertolote JM, Wasserman D, De Leo D, Bolhari J, Botega NJ, De Silva D, Phillips M, Vijayakumar L, Värnik A, Schlebusch L, Huong Tran Thi Thanh. Effectiveness of brief intervention and contact for suicide attempters: a randomized controlled trial in five countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008. 86(9): 703-709.

Fleischmann A, Bertolote JM, De Leo D, Botega N, Phillips M, Sisask M, Vijayakumar L, Malakouti K, Schlebusch L, De Silva D, Nguyen VT, Wasserman D. Characteristics of attempted suicides seen in emergency care settings of general hospitals in eight low and middle income countries. Psychological Medicine. 2005. 35: 1467-1474.

Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A, De Leo D, Bolhari J, Botega N, De Silva D, Huong Tran Thi Thanh, Phillips M, Schlebusch L, Värnik A, Vijayakumar L, Wasserman D. Suicide attempts, plans, and ideation in culturally diverse sites: the WHO SUPRE-MISS community survey. Psychological Medicine. 2005. 35: 1457-1465.