WHO Strategy for prevention and control of Chronic
2. Factors contributing to the burden of CRDs
Multiple determinants serve to increase the burden of CRDs. The direct
and indirect exposure to tobacco smoke is the principal risk factor for its development.
Other important factors include heavy exposure to air pollution derived from indoor and
outdoor sources, occupational related disorders, malnutrition and low birth weight, and
multiple early lung infections.
Studies undertaken over the last three decades provide growing evidence
of an increase in atopic diseases and sensitisation to common allergens. Prevalence of
asthma is increasing, most rapidly among children, especially where urbanisation is taking
place. Such factors as exposure to tobacco smoke, housing with poor ventilation, indoor
allergens, viral infections, outdoor air pollution, and chemical irritants are under
investigation. Conversely, there exists evidence that cleaner environments present in
modern cities understimulate post-natal immune systems, leading to over-sensitization.
Because of other priorities, CRDs are not receiving the attention and
services necessary in many developing countries to prevent and manage them appropriately.
Failure to take action results in increasing magnitude.
Poverty, which engulfs a large portion of the worlds' population,
determines the type of affordable housing, the level of nutrition, the level of education
and the types of occupations available to people, all of which can impact negatively on
health status. Socio-economic factors play an important role in increasing disease
prevalence and severity through environmental determinants and may also result in adverse
health outcomes caused by the lack of access to appropriate health care.
Contributing Factor A
Contributing Factor B
Section 1 - Section 2 - Section 3 - Section 4 - Section 5 - Section 6- Section 7