Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition


How to read the references

Data are derived from a variety of sources, e.g. published articles in the scientific press, government health statistics, and survey reports from international and non governmental organizations. To complement the scarce nutritional information from some countries data from national surveillance systems, e.g. Chile, Uruguay and Zimbabwe, are also included. For a few countries, e.g. Ecuador and South Africa, height censuses of school children have been included because little other data are available to describe the child growth status. When the data source is either a surveillance system or a height census, this is stated in the NOTES column of the data printout.

Data references follow immediately after the country data table, providing the user with the necessary information to easily trace data sources. Within each country's list of reference there are two separate sections: 1) "data references", i.e. those related to the data included in the data table, and 2) "additional references", i.e. those that provide supplementary information about status of child growth in the country. These "additional references" contain nutritional data that do not fulfill the database entry criteria but which might, nevertheless, provide relevant information for interested researchers.

Finally, whenever survey data have been reanalysed, either by responsible national authorities or by WHO, this is clearly indicated in the reference section by the words "and additional analysis".