Nutrition

Fortification of condiments and seasonings with vitamins and minerals in public health: from proof of concept to scaling up

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Background paper topics


1 Definition of condiments, spices, seasonings and their role in increasing dietary diversity To review the definitions of condiments, spices and seasonings used in food preparation. It presents important condiments and seasonings in different countries describing the individual condiments or seasonings, their trade, composition, uses in food and medicine, adulteration, quality, nomenclature and culture. It also highlights any potential role in increasing dietary diversity for improving the nutritional status of a population as a food-based approach.
2 Global markets of condiments and seasonings and consumption patterns To describe the worldwide market of condiments, spices and seasonings, -its characteristics and trends, to provide an overview of the consumption patterns of such items. To prepare a map of condiments, spices and seasonings availability by WHO regions and summarize any available data on consumption worldwide. This paper considers continental, regional and national practices in which a wide range of condiments and seasonings are currently fortified following mandatory or voluntary schemes or are being explored.
3 Industrial processing of condiments and seasonings worldwide. To review the different food technologies for processing industrially produced condiments and seasonings in different parts of the world. Describe mainly the processes to obtain soy sauce, fish sauce, bouillon cubes and other condiments and seasonings that are widely consumed. Consider particle size, nutrient losses, industrial processes, and the implications of all these for fortification. This paper also summarizes the different fortification technologies currently available to fortify condiments and seasonings at the industrial level and their implication for food processing technologies.
4 Stability of key micronutrients in fortified condiments and seasonings To summarize the common changes in stability of key micronutrients added to different condiments and seasonings during their addition through the food processing, packaging, storage, cooking and meal preparation.
5 Bioavailability of iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid fortificants for use in condiments and seasonings To review the factors that affect bioavailability of key micronutrients when added to condiments and seasonings worldwide, considering the chemical and physical properties of both foods and fortificants in the context of the usual dietary practices.
6 Models for estimating nutrient fortification levels in different condiments and seasonings. To describe the different approaches that can be used to estimate safe and efficacious amounts of key nutrients used in various condiments and seasonings, clearly stating mathematical assumptions and considerations in terms of their chemical form, stability, bioavailability, cost and overall diet.
7 Barriers to condiments and seasonings fortification To review the barriers to condiments and seasonings fortification with emphasis in their safety for human health (e.g. monosodium glutamate). This paper reviews the possibility and implications of excessive consumption of fortified condiments and seasonings as well as their promotion when fortified voluntarily. It analyses how this intervention could be implemented in the context of other health strategies such as salt reduction for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
8 Legal framework for condiments and seasonings production. To describe the legal framework related to fortified condiments and seasonings worldwide and provide specific examples. This paper aims to summarize existing policies and norms on condiments and seasonings, and fortification of these products.
9 Economic feasibility of industrially fortified condiments and seasonings in different contexts. To review the financial issues related to the implementation of fortification programmes of condiments or seasonings, considering existing facilities, production, and considerations for implementation of fortifying condiments and seasonings in countries with different levels of market development.
10 Determinants of equity in access to fortified condiments and seasonings To identify factors that prevent the consumption of fortified condiments and seasonings and their differential impact across social groups. Social protection initiatives are increasingly combining social transfers and the provision of social services with nutrition and public health interventions including the provision of condiments and seasonings. It is critical to explore barriers preventing equal access to condiments and seasonings across the social gradient and especially among the most vulnerable. This paper, adopting social determinants of health approach, should aim to identify different factors that determine the differential availability, accessibility, acceptability, and effective usage of fortified condiments and seasonings among population groups and will categorize them.
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