The International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes

A common review and evaluation framework

World Health Organization

Publication details

Editors: World Health Organization
Number of pages: 134
Publication date: 1996
Languages: English
WHO reference number: WHO/NUT/96.2



The aim of the International Code of Marketing of Break-milk Substitutes is to contribute to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breastfeeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution.

In pursuance of this aim, the Thirty-fourth World Health Assembly (May 1981) urged all Member States to translate the International Code into national legislation, regulations or other suitable measures, to involve all concerned parties in its implementation; and to monitor compliance with it. The Assembly also requested the Director-General of WHO to give all possible support to Member States for the Code's implementation.

in 1990-1991, with funds provided by the Government of the Netherlands, and in collaboration with the Government of Sweden and the Swedish International Development Authority, WHO provided technical support to 14 Member States that had indicated a desire to undertake an in-depth review and evaluation of their own experiences in giving effect to the Code. Governments used for this purpose a common review and evaluation framework (CREF) prepared by WHO.

The original CREF has been revised the expanded in the light of the experience gained in using it by the 14 Member States, and the lessons of Members States generally in giving effect to the principles and aim of the Code since its adoption. The revised version was also field-tested in Ecuador and Thailand in 1995 and further refined in the light of experience.

The competent authorities and all other concerned parties in countries are invited to use the CREF, adapting it where appropriate, to review and evaluate relevant national action.