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5. Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: Previous page | 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27

Table 15. Summary of strength of evidence linking diet to dental erosionb


Decreased risk

No relationship

Increased risk



Soft drinks and fruit juices


Hard cheese


Whole fresh fruit

Table 16. Summary of strength of evidence linking diet to enamel developmental defects


Decreased risk

No relationship

Increased risk


Vitamin D

Excess fluoride



Table 17. Summary of strength of evidence linking diet to periodontal disease


Decreased risk

No relationship

Increased risk


Good oral hygiene

Deficiency of vitamin C





Antioxidant nutrients

Vitamin E supplementation


5.6.5 Disease-specific recommendations

It is important to set a recommended maximum level for the consumption of free sugars; a low free sugars consumption by a population will translate into a low level of dental caries. Population goals enable the oral health risks of populations to be assessed and health promotion goals monitored.

The best available evidence indicates that the level of dental caries is low in countries where the consumption of free sugars is below 15-20 kg per person per year. This is equivalent to a daily intake of 40-55 g per person and the values equate to 6-10% of energy intake. It is of particular importance that countries which currently have low consumption of free sugars (<15-20 kg per person per year) do not increase consumption levels. For countries with high consumption levels it is recommended that national health authorities and decision-makers formulate countryspecific and community-specific goals for reduction in the amount of free sugars, aiming towards the recommended maximum of no more than 10% of energy intake.

In addition to population targets given in terms of the amount of free sugars, targets for the frequency of free sugars consumption are also important. The frequency of consumption of foods and/or drinks containing free sugars should be limited to a maximum of four times per day.

Many countries that are currently undergoing nutrition transition do not have adequate exposure to fluoride. There should be promotion of adequate fluoride exposure via appropriate vehicles, for example, affordable toothpaste, water, salt and milk. It is the responsibility of national health authorities to ensure implementation of feasible fluoride programmes for their country. Research into the outcome of alternative community fluoride programmes should be encouraged.

In order to minimize the occurrence of dental erosion, the amount and frequency of intake of soft drinks and juices should be limited. Elimination of undernutrition prevents enamel hypoplasia and the other potential effects of undernutrition on oral health (e.g. salivary gland atrophy, periodontal disease, oral infectious diseases).


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5. Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27 | Next page

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