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5. Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: Previous page | 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27

Physical activity

A total of one hour per day of moderate-intensity activity, such as walking on most days of the week, is probably needed to maintain a healthy body weight, particularly for people with sedentary occupations.2

Total energy intake

The fat and water content of foods are the main determinants of the energy density of the diet. A lower consumption of energy-dense (i.e. high-fat, high-sugars and high-starch) foods and energy-dense (i.e. high free sugars) drinks contributes to a reduction in total energy intake. Conversely, a higher intake of energy-dilute foods (i.e. vegetables and fruits) and foods high in NSP (i.e. wholegrain cereals) contributes to a reduction in total energy intake and an improvement in micronutrient intake. It should be noted, however, that very active groups who have diets high in vegetables, legumes, fruits and wholegrain cereals, may sustain a total fat intake of up to 35% without the risk of unhealthy weight gain.

References

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4. Fogelholm M, Kukkonen-Harjula K. Does physical activity prevent weight gain - a systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 2000, 1:95-111.

5. Weight control and physical activity. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002 (IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 6).

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10. Willett WC. Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: no. Obesity Reviews, 2000, 3:59-68.

11. Campbell K, Crawford D. Family food environments as determinants of preschool-aged children’s eating behaviours: implications for obesity prevention policy. A review. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2001, 58:19-25.

12. Gortmaker S et al. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 1999, 153:409-418.

13. Nestle M. Food politics. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press, 2002.

14. Nestle M. The ironic politics of obesity. Science, 2003, 299:781.

15. Robinson TN. Does television cause childhood obesity? Journal of American Medical Association, 1998, 279:959-960.

16. Borzekowski DL, Robinson TN. The 30-second effect: an experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2001, 101:42-46.

17. Lewis MK, Hill AJ. Food advertising on British children’s television: a content analysis and experimental study with nine-year olds. International Journal of Obesity, 1998, 22:206-214.

18. Taras HL, Gage M. Advertised foods on children’s television. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 1995, 149:649-652.

19. Mattes RD. Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiology and Behaviour, 1996, 59:179-187.

20. Tordoff MG, Alleva AM. Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990, 51:963-969.

21. Harnack L, Stang J, Story M. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1999, 99:436-441.

22. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet, 2001, 357:505-508.

23. Peña M, Bacallao J. Obesity and poverty: a new public health challenge. Washington, DC, Pan American Health Organization, 2000 (Scientific Publication, No. 576).

24. Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003, 289:450-453.

25. Jeffery RW, French SA. Epidemic obesity in the United States: are fast foods and television viewing contributing? American Journal of Public Health, 1998, 88:277-280.

26. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 894).

27. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific/International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Task Force. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. Sydney, Health Communications Australia, 2000.

2 See also reference 5

5. Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27 | Next page

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